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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Pathway: alanine biosynthesis II

Enzyme View:

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Amino Acids Biosynthesis Individual Amino Acids Biosynthesis Alanine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 , Homo sapiens

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

Summary:
Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D- and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.

At least three pathways (alanine biosynthesis I, alanine biosynthesis II, and alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. The evidence for alanine biosynthesis II comes from cell extract studies and the isolation of the still-unsequenced gene alaB during a screen for genes able to complement an alanine auxotroph [Wang87a].

Superpathways: pyruvate fermentation to acetate and alanine , Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum biosynthetic metabolism , superpathway of alanine biosynthesis

Variants: alanine biosynthesis I , alanine biosynthesis III

Unification Links: EcoCyc:ALANINE-SYN2-PWY

Credits:
Created 11-Mar-2004 by Ingraham JL , UC Davis
Last-Curated ? 31-Aug-2010 by Keseler I , SRI International


References

Wang87a: Wang MD, Buckley L, Berg CM (1987). "Cloning of genes that suppress an Escherichia coli K-12 alanine auxotroph when present in multicopy plasmids." J Bacteriol 169(12);5610-4. PMID: 2890623

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Felbeck80: Felbeck H, Grieshaber MK (1980). "Investigations on some enzymes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of amino acids of Arenicola marina L." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 66(2);205-213.

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Han10a: Han X, Dorsey-Oresto A, Malik M, Wang JY, Drlica K, Zhao X, Lu T (2010). "Escherichia coli genes that reduce the lethal effects of stress." BMC Microbiol 10;35. PMID: 20128927

Ishiguro91: Ishiguro M, Takio K, Suzuki M, Oyama R, Matsuzawa T, Titani K (1991). "Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods." Biochemistry 30(43);10451-7. PMID: 1931970

Kim10: Kim SH, Schneider BL, Reitzer L (2010). "Genetics and regulation of the major enzymes of alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 192(20);5304-11. PMID: 20729367

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Liepman03: Liepman AH, Olsen LJ (2003). "Alanine aminotransferase homologs catalyze the glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase reaction in peroxisomes of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 131(1);215-27. PMID: 12529529

PenaSoler14: Pena-Soler E, Fernandez FJ, Lopez-Estepa M, Garces F, Richardson AJ, Quintana JF, Rudd KE, Coll M, Vega MC (2014). "Structural analysis and mutant growth properties reveal distinctive enzymatic and cellular roles for the three major L-alanine transaminases of Escherichia coli." PLoS One 9(7);e102139. PMID: 25014014

Rey84: Rey, M, Garnet, H (1984). "A physiological study of Panicum maximum infected by Phyllachora paspalicola." Can. J. Bot. Vol 62: 2283-2289.

Schweiger84: Schweiger G, Buckel W (1984). "On the dehydration of (R)-lactate in the fermentation of alanine to propionate by Clostridium propionicum." FEBS Lett 1984;171(1);79-84. PMID: 6586495

Sohocki97: Sohocki MM, Sullivan LS, Harrison WR, Sodergren EJ, Elder FF, Weinstock G, Tanase S, Daiger SP (1997). "Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites." Genomics 40(2);247-52. PMID: 9119391

Son92: Son D, Sugiyama T (1992). "Molecular cloning of an alanine aminotransferase from NAD-malic enzyme type C4 plant Panicum miliaceum." Plant Mol Biol 20(4);705-13. PMID: 1450385

Tao08: Tao Y, Ferrer JL, Ljung K, Pojer F, Hong F, Long JA, Li L, Moreno JE, Bowman ME, Ivans LJ, Cheng Y, Lim J, Zhao Y, Ballare CL, Sandberg G, Noel JP, Chory J (2008). "Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants." Cell 133(1);164-76. PMID: 18394996

Umemura94: Umemura I, Yanagiya K, Komatsubara S, Sato T, Tosa T (1994). "Purification and some properties of alanine aminotransferase from Candida maltosa." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(2);283-7. PMID: 7764540

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Vanderpool07: Vanderpool CK, Gottesman S (2007). "The novel transcription factor SgrR coordinates the response to glucose-phosphate stress." J Bacteriol 189(6);2238-48. PMID: 17209026

Ward00: Ward DE, Kengen SW, van Der Oost J, de Vos WM (2000). "Purification and characterization of the alanine aminotransferase from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon pyrococcus furiosus and its role in alanine production." J Bacteriol 2000;182(9);2559-66. PMID: 10762259

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Wed Dec 17, 2014, BIOCYC14B.