This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Individual Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Alanine Biosynthesis|
Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D- and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.
At least three pathways (alanine biosynthesis I, alanine biosynthesis II, and alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. The evidence for alanine biosynthesis II comes from cell extract studies and the isolation of the still-unsequenced gene alaB during a screen for genes able to complement an alanine auxotroph [Wang87a].
Unification Links: EcoCyc:ALANINE-SYN2-PWY
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Felbeck80: Felbeck H, Grieshaber MK (1980). "Investigations on some enzymes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of amino acids of Arenicola marina L." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 66(2);205-213.
Ishiguro91: Ishiguro M, Takio K, Suzuki M, Oyama R, Matsuzawa T, Titani K (1991). "Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods." Biochemistry 30(43);10451-7. PMID: 1931970
Liepman03: Liepman AH, Olsen LJ (2003). "Alanine aminotransferase homologs catalyze the glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase reaction in peroxisomes of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 131(1);215-27. PMID: 12529529
PenaSoler14: Pena-Soler E, Fernandez FJ, Lopez-Estepa M, Garces F, Richardson AJ, Quintana JF, Rudd KE, Coll M, Vega MC (2014). "Structural analysis and mutant growth properties reveal distinctive enzymatic and cellular roles for the three major L-alanine transaminases of Escherichia coli." PLoS One 9(7);e102139. PMID: 25014014
Sohocki97: Sohocki MM, Sullivan LS, Harrison WR, Sodergren EJ, Elder FF, Weinstock G, Tanase S, Daiger SP (1997). "Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites." Genomics 40(2);247-52. PMID: 9119391
Tao08: Tao Y, Ferrer JL, Ljung K, Pojer F, Hong F, Long JA, Li L, Moreno JE, Bowman ME, Ivans LJ, Cheng Y, Lim J, Zhao Y, Ballare CL, Sandberg G, Noel JP, Chory J (2008). "Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants." Cell 133(1);164-76. PMID: 18394996
Umemura94: Umemura I, Yanagiya K, Komatsubara S, Sato T, Tosa T (1994). "Purification and some properties of alanine aminotransferase from Candida maltosa." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(2);283-7. PMID: 7764540
Ward00: Ward DE, Kengen SW, van Der Oost J, de Vos WM (2000). "Purification and characterization of the alanine aminotransferase from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon pyrococcus furiosus and its role in alanine production." J Bacteriol 2000;182(9);2559-66. PMID: 10762259
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