MetaCyc Pathway: L-phenylalanine degradation II (anaerobic)
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: L-phenylalanine degradation II (anaerobic)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: anaerobic L-phenylalanine oxidation

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAmino Acids DegradationProteinogenic Amino Acids DegradationL-phenylalanine Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Thauera aromatica

Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi, Proteobacteria

Thauera aromatica can utilize L-phenylalanine as a sole source of carbon. Phenylalanine is completely oxidized in an anaerobic pathway via phenylacetate to benzoyl-CoA (see phenylacetate degradation II (anaerobic) for the second part of this pathway). benzoyl-CoA then enters a separate pathway for conversion via 3-hydroxypimeloyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA (see benzoyl-CoA degradation II (anaerobic)) [Schneider97b].

This part of the pathway (up to phenylacetate) was also observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though the main L-phenylalanine degradation in this organism results in the generation of 2-phenylethanol (see L-phenylalanine degradation III) [Dickinson03].

Superpathways: anaerobic aromatic compound degradation (Thauera aromatica)

Variants: L-phenylalanine degradation I (aerobic), L-phenylalanine degradation III, L-phenylalanine degradation IV (mammalian, via side chain), L-phenylalanine degradation V

Created 26-Oct-1999 by Pellegrini-Toole A, Marine Biological Laboratory
Revised 25-Oct-2006 by Caspi R, SRI International


Dickinson03: Dickinson JR, Salgado LE, Hewlins MJ (2003). "The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 278(10);8028-34. PMID: 12499363

Schneider97b: Schneider S, Mohamed ME, Fuchs G (1997). "Anaerobic metabolism of L-phenylalanine via benzoyl-CoA in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica." Arch Microbiol 1997;168(4);310-20. PMID: 9297469

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arias08: Arias S, Olivera ER, Arcos M, Naharro G, Luengo JM (2008). "Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of the pathways involved in the conversion of 2-phenylethylamine and 2-phenylethanol into phenylacetic acid in Pseudomonas putida U." Environ Microbiol 10(2);413-32. PMID: 18177365

Beltrametti97: Beltrametti F, Marconi AM, Bestetti G, Colombo C, Galli E, Ruzzi M, Zennaro E (1997). "Sequencing and functional analysis of styrene catabolism genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST." Appl Environ Microbiol 63(6);2232-9. PMID: 9172343

Boer03: Boer VM, de Winde JH, Pronk JT, Piper MD (2003). "The genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in aerobic chemostat cultures limited for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur." J Biol Chem 278(5);3265-74. PMID: 12414795

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Collier72: Collier RH, Kohlhaw G (1972). "Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1972;112(1);365-71. PMID: 4404056

Dickinson00: Dickinson JR, Harrison SJ, Dickinson JA, Hewlins MJ (2000). "An investigation of the metabolism of isoleucine to active Amyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 275(15);10937-42. PMID: 10753893

Dickinson97: Dickinson JR, Lanterman MM, Danner DJ, Pearson BM, Sanz P, Harrison SJ, Hewlins MJ (1997). "A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the metabolism of leucine to isoamyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 272(43);26871-8. PMID: 9341119

Dickinson98: Dickinson JR, Harrison SJ, Hewlins MJ (1998). "An investigation of the metabolism of valine to isobutyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273(40);25751-6. PMID: 9748245

Fauchon02: Fauchon M, Lagniel G, Aude JC, Lombardia L, Soularue P, Petat C, Marguerie G, Sentenac A, Werner M, Labarre J (2002). "Sulfur sparing in the yeast proteome in response to sulfur demand." Mol Cell 9(4);713-23. PMID: 11983164

Ferrandez97a: Ferrandez A, Prieto MA, Garcia JL, Diaz E (1997). "Molecular characterization of PadA, a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 1997;406(1-2);23-7. PMID: 9109378

Flikweert96: Flikweert MT, Van Der Zanden L, Janssen WM, Steensma HY, Van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (1996). "Pyruvate decarboxylase: an indispensable enzyme for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose." Yeast 12(3);247-57. PMID: 8904337

Gelfand77: Gelfand DH, Steinberg RA (1977). "Escherichia coli mutants deficient in the aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases." J Bacteriol 1977;130(1);429-40. PMID: 15983

Gonda10: Gonda I, Bar E, Portnoy V, Lev S, Burger J, Schaffer AA, Tadmor Y, Gepstein S, Giovannoni JJ, Katzir N, Lewinsohn E (2010). "Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit." J Exp Bot 61(4);1111-23. PMID: 20065117

Han01: Han Q, Fang J, Li J (2001). "Kynurenine aminotransferase and glutamine transaminase K of Escherichia coli: identity with aspartate aminotransferase." Biochem J 360(Pt 3);617-23. PMID: 11736651

Hanlon97: Hanlon SP, Hill TK, Flavell MA, Stringfellow JM, Cooper RA (1997). "2-phenylethylamine catabolism by Escherichia coli K-12: gene organization and expression." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 2);513-8. PMID: 9043126

Hohmann91: Hohmann S (1991). "Characterization of PDC6, a third structural gene for pyruvate decarboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 173(24);7963-9. PMID: 1744053

Iraqui98: Iraqui I, Vissers S, Cartiaux M, Urrestarazu A (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257(2);238-48. PMID: 9491083

Kellermann86: Kellermann E, Seeboth PG, Hollenberg CP (1986). "Analysis of the primary structure and promoter function of a pyruvate decarboxylase gene (PDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Nucleic Acids Res 14(22);8963-77. PMID: 3537965

Klyosov96: Klyosov AA (1996). "Kinetics and specificity of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenases toward aliphatic, aromatic, and fused polycyclic aldehydes." Biochemistry 35(14);4457-67. PMID: 8605195

Kradolfer82: Kradolfer P, Niederberger P, Hutter R (1982). "Tryptophan degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization of two aromatic aminotransferases." Arch Microbiol 133(3);242-8. PMID: 6763508

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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