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MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of aspartate and asparagine biosynthesis; interconversion of aspartate and asparagine

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Amino Acids Biosynthesis
Metabolic Clusters

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria

Aspartate undergoes a number of reactions that are not in any linear order. One reaction converts the TCA intermediate fumarate to aspartate. Another reaction irreversibly converts aspartate to asparagine. A third reaction facilitates reversible interconversion of aspartate and asparargine. In Escherichia coli aspartase participates in at least two metabolic processes: the regeneration of oxaloacetate as amino-acceptor for enabling growth on glutamate, and the formation of fumarate and succinate during anaerobic growth on glucose. [Guest84, Falzone88]

Subpathways: glutamate degradation II , aspartate biosynthesis , asparagine biosynthesis II

Unification Links: EcoCyc:ASPASN-PWY


Falzone88: Falzone CJ, Karsten WE, Conley JD, Viola RE (1988). "L-aspartase from Escherichia coli: substrate specificity and role of divalent metal ions." Biochemistry 1988;27(26);9089-93. PMID: 2853974

Guest84: Guest JR, Roberts RE, Wilde RJ (1984). "Cloning of the aspartase gene (aspA) of Escherichia coli." J Gen Microbiol 1984;130 ( Pt 5);1271-8. PMID: 6088667

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Almo94: Almo SC, Smith DL, Danishefsky AT, Ringe D (1994). "The structural basis for the altered substrate specificity of the R292D active site mutant of aspartate aminotransferase from E. coli." Protein Eng 7(3);405-12. PMID: 7909946

Asai95: Asai Y, Inui M, Vertes A, Kobayashi M, Yukawa H (1995). "Cloning and sequence determination of the aspartase-encoding gene from Brevibacterium flavum MJ233." Gene 158(1);87-90. PMID: 7789816

Asano05: Asano Y, Kira I, Yokozeki K (2005). "Alteration of substrate specificity of aspartase by directed evolution." Biomol Eng 22(1-3);95-101. PMID: 15857789

Aung00: Aung HP, Bocola M, Schleper S, Rohm KH (2000). "Dynamics of a mobile loop at the active site of Escherichia coli asparaginase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1481(2);349-59. PMID: 11018727

Birolo00: Birolo L, Tutino ML, Fontanella B, Gerday C, Mainolfi K, Pascarella S, Sannia G, Vinci F, Marino G (2000). "Aspartate aminotransferase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125. Cloning, expression, properties, and molecular modelling." Eur J Biochem 267(9);2790-802. PMID: 10785402

Birolo95: Birolo L, Sandmeier E, Christen P, John RA (1995). "The roles of Tyr70 and Tyr225 in aspartate aminotransferase assessed by analysing the effects of mutations on the multiple reactions of the substrate analogue serine o-sulphate." Eur J Biochem 232(3);859-64. PMID: 7588727

Birolo99: Birolo L, Malashkevich VN, Capitani G, De Luca F, Moretta A, Jansonius JN, Marino G (1999). "Functional and structural analysis of cis-proline mutants of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase." Biochemistry 38(3);905-13. PMID: 9893985

Boehlein94: Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM (1994). "Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B. Searching for the catalytic triad." J Biol Chem 269(10);7450-7. PMID: 7907328

Bonner90: Bonner CA, Fischer RS, Ahmad S, Jensen RA (1990). "Remnants of an ancient pathway to L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine in enteric bacteria: evolutionary implications and biotechnological impact." Appl Environ Microbiol 56(12);3741-7. PMID: 2082822

Bonthron90: Bonthron DT (1990). "L-asparaginase II of Escherichia coli K-12: cloning, mapping and sequencing of the ansB gene." Gene 1990;91(1);101-5. PMID: 2144836

Borek00: Borek D, Jaskolski M (2000). "Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a new L-asparaginase encoded by the Escherichia coli genome." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2000;56 ( Pt 11);1505-7. PMID: 11053866

Borek04: Borek D, Michalska K, Brzezinski K, Kisiel A, Podkowinski J, Bonthron DT, Krowarsch D, Otlewski J, Jaskolski M (2004). "Expression, purification and catalytic activity of Lupinus luteus asparagine beta-amidohydrolase and its Escherichia coli homolog." Eur J Biochem 271(15);3215-26. PMID: 15265041

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014."

Burland93: Burland V, Plunkett G, Daniels DL, Blattner FR (1993). "DNA sequence and analysis of 136 kilobases of the Escherichia coli genome: organizational symmetry around the origin of replication." Genomics 1993;16(3);551-61. PMID: 7686882

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Cantor09: Cantor JR, Stone EM, Chantranupong L, Georgiou G (2009). "The human asparaginase-like protein 1 hASRGL1 is an Ntn hydrolase with beta-aspartyl peptidase activity." Biochemistry 48(46);11026-31. PMID: 19839645

Cedar67: Cedar H, Schwartz JH (1967). "Localization of the two-L-asparaginases in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 242(16);3753-5. PMID: 4962587

Cedar68: Cedar H, Schwartz JH (1968). "Production of L-asparaginase II by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 96(6);2043-8. PMID: 4881701

Cedar69: Cedar H, Schwartz JH (1969). "The asparagine synthetase of Escherhic coli. I. Biosynthetic role of the enzyme, purification, and characterization of the reaction products." J Biol Chem 1969;244(15);4112-21. PMID: 4895361

Cedar69a: Cedar H, Schwartz JH (1969). "The asparagine synthetase of Escherichia coli. II. Studies on mechanism." J Biol Chem 1969;244(15);4122-7. PMID: 4895362

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sat Jan 31, 2015, BIOCYC11A.