Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

MetaCyc Pathway: cyanate degradation
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: cyanate degradation

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: cyanate catabolism

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationInorganic Nutrients MetabolismNitrogen Compounds Metabolism

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Pseudomonas fluorescens

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Viridiplantae

In Escherichia coli cyanate can occur inside the cell as a result of nonenzymatic decomposition of carbamoyl phosphate, and in the environment due to dissociation of urea and photooxidation of hydrogen cyanide. Although cyanate at high concentrations is toxic to Escherichia coli, it can serve as a sole source of nitrogen due to the production of ammonia by cyanase [Sung87]. The cyanate degradation pathway therefore serves the dual purpose of detoxification and nitrogen utilization [Kozliak95].

Cyanase catalyzes the first step of the pathway, producing CO2 and the unstable compound carbamate, which spontaneously decomposes to CO2 and ammonia, thus producing a source of nitrogen for growth. The second enzyme of this pathway, carbonic anhydrase, is an essential component of the pathway. In the absence of carbonic anhydrase at atmospheric concentrations of CO2, non-enzymatic hydration of CO2 is not sufficient to prevent depletion of the intracellular hydrogen carbonate pool due to rapid diffusion of CO2 [Guilloton93].

Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIB 11764 is also capable of utilizing cyanate as a sole source of nitrogen for growth [Kunz89]. The induced enzymatic activity of extracts of cyanate grown Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIB 11764 cells was shown to be bicarbonate dependent and specific for cyanate, resembling the enzymatic activity of cyanase as described in Escherichia coli [Kunz89].

Unification Links: AraCyc:CYANCAT-PWY, EcoCyc:CYANCAT-PWY, PlantCyc:CYANCAT-PWY

Created 09-Sep-1994 by Riley M, Marine Biological Laboratory
Revised 20-Mar-2007 by Keseler I, SRI International
Last-Curated 29-Mar-2007 by Keseler I, SRI International


Fett94: Fett JP, Coleman JR (1994). "Characterization and expression of two cDNAs encoding carbonic anhydrase in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Physiol 105(2);707-13. PMID: 7520589

Guilloton93: Guilloton MB, Lamblin AF, Kozliak EI, Gerami-Nejad M, Tu C, Silverman D, Anderson PM, Fuchs JA (1993). "A physiological role for cyanate-induced carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1993;175(5);1443-51. PMID: 8444806

Kozliak95: Kozliak EI, Fuchs JA, Guilloton MB, Anderson PM (1995). "Role of bicarbonate/CO2 in the inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by cyanate." J Bacteriol 177(11);3213-9. PMID: 7768821

Kunz89: Kunz DA, Nagappan O (1989). "Cyanase-mediated utilization of cyanate in Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIB 11764." Appl Environ Microbiol 55(1);256-8. PMID: 2495763

Qian11: Qian D, Jiang L, Lu L, Wei C, Li Y (2011). "Biochemical and structural properties of cyanases from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa." PLoS One 6(3);e18300. PMID: 21494323

Rowlett02: Rowlett RS, Tu C, McKay MM, Preiss JR, Loomis RJ, Hicks KA, Marchione RJ, Strong JA, Donovan GS, Chamberlin JE (2002). "Kinetic characterization of wild-type and proton transfer-impaired variants of beta-carbonic anhydrase from Arabidopsis thaliana." Arch Biochem Biophys 404(2);197-209. PMID: 12147257

Sung87: Sung YC, Parsell D, Anderson PM, Fuchs JA (1987). "Identification, mapping, and cloning of the gene encoding cyanase in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 169(6);2639-42. PMID: 3034861

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Anderson80: Anderson PM (1980). "Purification and properties of the inducible enzyme cyanase." Biochemistry 19(13);2882-8. PMID: 6994799

Anderson86: Anderson PM, Little RM (1986). "Kinetic properties of cyanase." Biochemistry 25(7);1621-6. PMID: 3518792

Anderson87: Anderson PM, Johnson WV, Endrizzi JA, Little RM, Korte JJ (1987). "Interaction of mono- and dianions with cyanase: evidence for apparent half-site binding." Biochemistry 26(13);3938-43. PMID: 3651424

Anderson88a: Anderson PM, Johnson WV, Korte JJ, Xiong XF, Sung YC, Fuchs JA (1988). "Reversible dissociation of active octamer of cyanase to inactive dimer promoted by alteration of the sulfhydryl group." J Biol Chem 263(12);5674-80. PMID: 3128546

Anderson90: Anderson PM, Sung YC, Fuchs JA (1990). "The cyanase operon and cyanate metabolism." FEMS Microbiol Rev 1990;7(3-4);247-52. PMID: 2094285

Anderson94: Anderson PM, Korte JJ, Holcomb TA, Cho YG, Son CM, Sung YC (1994). "Formation of intersubunit disulfide bonds and properties of the single histidine and cysteine residues in each subunit relative to the decameric structure of cyanase." J Biol Chem 269(21);15036-45. PMID: 8195141

Anderson94a: Anderson PM, Korte JJ, Holcomb TA (1994). "Reaction of the N-terminal methionine residues in cyanase with diethylpyrocarbonate." Biochemistry 1994;33(47);14121-5. PMID: 7947823

Burnell90: Burnell JN (1990). "Immunological Study of Carbonic Anhydrase in C3 and C4 Plants Using Antibodies to Maize Cytosolic and Spinach Chloroplastic Carbonic Anhydrase." Plant Cell Physiol. 31(4):423-427.

Burnell97: Burnell JN, Ludwig M (1997). "Characterisation of Two cDNAs Encoding Carbonic Anhydrase in Maize Leaves." Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24(4):451-458.

Cavallaro94: Cavallaro A, Ludwig M, Burnell J (1994). "The nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA encoding Flaveria bidentis carbonic anhydrase." FEBS Lett 350(2-3);216-8. PMID: 8070567

Chin83: Chin CC, Anderson PM, Wold F (1983). "The amino acid sequence of Escherichia coli cyanase." J Biol Chem 258(1);276-82. PMID: 6336748

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Guilloton87: Guilloton M, Karst F (1987). "Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants lacking inducible cyanase." J Gen Microbiol 133(3);645-53. PMID: 3309165

Guilloton92: Guilloton MB, Korte JJ, Lamblin AF, Fuchs JA, Anderson PM (1992). "Carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. A product of the cyn operon." J Biol Chem 1992;267(6);3731-4. PMID: 1740425

Hashimoto03: Hashimoto M, Kato J (2003). "Indispensability of the Escherichia coli carbonic anhydrases YadF and CynT in cell proliferation at a low CO2 partial pressure." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67(4);919-22. PMID: 12784642

Ito11: Ito J, Batth TS, Petzold CJ, Redding-Johanson AM, Mukhopadhyay A, Verboom R, Meyer EH, Millar AH, Heazlewood JL (2011). "Analysis of the Arabidopsis cytosolic proteome highlights subcellular partitioning of central plant metabolism." J Proteome Res 10(4);1571-82. PMID: 21166475

Johnson87: Johnson WV, Anderson PM (1987). "Bicarbonate is a recycling substrate for cyanase." J Biol Chem 262(19);9021-5. PMID: 3110153

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Fri Apr 29, 2016, biocyc13.