This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: ethene biosynthesis from methionine
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Hormones Biosynthesis → Plant Hormones Biosynthesis → Ethylene Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Embryophyta
Ethylene is known in plants, fungi and bacteria. In plants, ethylene is an important hormone that regulates plant growth and development. It is well-known as a fruit-ripening hormone and is biologically active in trace amounts. Ethylene also plays a general role as a growth inhibitor in promoting leaf and flower senescence and abscission.
All plants produce ethylene from L-methionine (as described here). In addition, two alternative ethylene biosynthetic pathways have been reported from microorganisms. Most microorganisms produce only trace amounts of ethylene via the 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate (KMBA) pathway [Nagahama92] (see ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes)). In that route ethylene is produced non-enzymatically by hydroxyl radicals that are produced from molecular oxygen by an NADH:Fe(III)EDTA oxidoreductase [Ince86, Fukuda89]. In the second microbial pathway, which is found mostly in members of the Pseudomonas syringae group, ethylene is formed enzymatically from 2-oxoglutarate (see ethylene biosynthesis II (microbes)).
Being the simplest unsaturated organic molecule, ethylene is the building block for synthetic polymers including plastics such as polyethylene. Large amounts of ethylene are currently produced in a chemical process from fossil fuels. It is the organic compound that has the highest annual global production.
About This Pathway
In plants, methionine is the only known precursor of ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene is synthesized from L-methionine through intermediates S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC). Ethylene synthesis can be induced by environmental stress and other plant growth hormones such as auxin. Its production and action can be inhibited by specific ethylene inhibitors such as silver and high concentration of CO2.
The cloning and analysis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase, EC 188.8.131.52) genes from a number of plants show that they form a multigene family that are differentially regulated. The transcripts accumulate as a response to a variety of triggers such as ethylene, hormones, wounding, ripening, senescence and pollination [Kosugi00].
Unification Links: AraCyc:ETHYL-PWY
Fukuda89: Fukuda H, Takahashi M, Fujii T, Tazaki M, Ogawa T (1989). "An NADH:Fe(III)EDTA oxidoreductase from Cryptococcus albidus: an enzyme involved in ethylene production in vivo?." FEMS Microbiol Lett 51(1);107-11. PMID: 2792734
Kosugi00: Kosugi Y, Shibuya K, Tsuruno N, Iwazaki Y, Mochizuki A, Yoshioka T, Hashiba T, Satoh S (2000). "Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals." Plant Sci 158(1-2);139-145. PMID: 10996253
Lyzenga12: Lyzenga WJ, Booth JK, Stone SL (2012). "The Arabidopsis RING-type E3 ligase XBAT32 mediates the proteasomal degradation of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 7." Plant J 71(1);23-34. PMID: 22339729
Nagahama92: Nagahama, K., Ogawa, T., Fujii, T., Fukuda, H. (1992). "Classification of ethylene-producing bacteria in terms of biosynthetic pathways to ethylene." Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 73(1):1-5.
Spanu91: Spanu P, Reinhardt D, Boller T (1991). "Analysis and cloning of the ethylene-forming enzyme from tomato by functional expression of its mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes." EMBO J 10(8);2007-13. PMID: 2065651
Abel95: Abel S, Nguyen MD, Chow W, Theologis A (1995). "ACS4, a primary indoleacetic acid-responsive gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Structural characterization, expression in Escherichia coli, and expression characteristics in response to auxin [corrected]." J Biol Chem 1995;270(32);19093-9. PMID: 7642574
Balague93: Balague C, Watson CF, Turner AJ, Rouge P, Picton S, Pech JC, Grierson D (1993). "Isolation of a ripening and wound-induced cDNA from Cucumis melo L. encoding a protein with homology to the ethylene-forming enzyme." Eur J Biochem 212(1);27-34. PMID: 8444161
Barry96: Barry CS, Blume B, Bouzayen M, Cooper W, Hamilton AJ, Grierson D (1996). "Differential expression of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene family of tomato." Plant J 9(4);525-35. PMID: 8624515
Chattopadhyay91: Chattopadhyay MK, Ghosh AK, Sengupta S (1991). "Control of methionine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K12: a closer study with analogue-resistant mutants." J Gen Microbiol 137(3);685-91. PMID: 2033383
Chiang77: Chiang PK, Cantoni GL (1977). "Activation of methionine for transmethylation. Purification of the S-adenosylmethionine synthetase of bakers' yeast and its separation into two forms." J Biol Chem 1977;252(13);4506-13. PMID: 194884
Dong92: Dong JG, Olson D, Silverstone A, Yang SF (1992). "Sequence of a cDNA coding for a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog from apple fruit." Plant Physiol 98(4);1530-1. PMID: 16668829
Dong92a: Dong JG, Fernandez-Maculet JC, Yang SF (1992). "Purification and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase from apple fruit." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(20);9789-93. PMID: 1409700
Han07: Han SE, Seo YS, Kim D, Sung SK, Kim WT (2007). "Expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding apple beta-cyanoalanine synthase homologs, is concomitantly induced during ripening and implicates MdCASs in the possible role of the cyanide detoxification in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits." Plant Cell Rep 26(8);1321-31. PMID: 17333023
Kamarthapu08: Kamarthapu V, Rao KV, Srinivas PN, Reddy GB, Reddy VD (2008). "Structural and kinetic properties of Bacillus subtilis S-adenosylmethionine synthetase expressed in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1784(12);1949-58. PMID: 18634909
Lee97b: Lee JH, Chae HS, Lee JH, Hwang B, Hahn KW, Kang BG, Kim WT (1997). "Structure and expression of two cDNAs encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase of rice (Oryza sativa L.)." Biochim Biophys Acta 1354(1);13-8. PMID: 9375784
LeGros00: LeGros HL, Halim AB, Geller AM, Kotb M (2000). "Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the beta regulatory subunit of human methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT II)." J Biol Chem 275(4);2359-66. PMID: 10644686
Liang92: Liang X, Abel S, Keller JA, Shen NF, Theologis A (1992). "The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89(22);11046-50. PMID: 1438312
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