This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → C1 Compounds Utilization and Assimilation → Formaldehyde Oxidation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Pseudomonas putida
Expected Taxonomic Range: Proteobacteria
The detoxification of the highly toxic formaldehyde is a major biochemical necessity for most life forms. In the case of methylotrophic bacteria, formaldehyde is not just a toxic compound, but also a central intermediate. It has been suggested that the formaldehyde concentration in the cytoplasm of a methylotroph would rise to 100mM in less than 1 minute if formaldehyde consumption would stop [Vorholt00]. Several different pathways for Formaldehyde Oxidation are known in bacteria, encoded by unrelated or distantly related genes.
About This Pathway
This pathway involves a formaldehyde dehydrogenase that does not require a thiol cofactor for its activity. This enzyme has been purified from Pseudomonas putida [Tanaka02a], and homologs of this enzyme were found in the genomes of several organisms [Speer94].
Superpathways: superpathway of C1 compounds oxidation to CO2
Speer94: Speer BS, Chistoserdova L, Lidstrom ME (1994). "Sequence of the gene for a NAD(P)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (class III alcohol dehydrogenase) from a marine methanotroph Methylobacter marinus A45." FEMS Microbiol Lett 121(3);349-55. PMID: 7926692
Tanaka02a: Tanaka N, Kusakabe Y, Ito K, Yoshimoto T, Nakamura KT (2002). "Crystal structure of formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida: the structural origin of the tightly bound cofactor in nicotinoprotein dehydrogenases." J Mol Biol 324(3);519-33. PMID: 12445786
Vorholt00: Vorholt JA, Marx CJ, Lidstrom ME, Thauer RK (2000). "Novel formaldehyde-activating enzyme in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 required for growth on methanol." J Bacteriol 182(23);6645-50. PMID: 11073907
Ando79: Ando M, Yoshimoto T, Ogushi S, Rikitake K, Shibata S, Tsuru D (1979). "Formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida. Purification and some properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 85(5);1165-72. PMID: 571868
Ito94: Ito K, Takahashi M, Yoshimoto T, Tsuru D (1994). "Cloning and high-level expression of the glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas putida." J Bacteriol 176(9);2483-91. PMID: 8169197
Lessmeier13: Lessmeier L, Hoefener M, Wendisch VF (2013). "Formaldehyde degradation in Corynebacterium glutamicum involves acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase." Microbiology 159(Pt 12);2651-62. PMID: 24065717
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