MetaCyc Pathway: L-glutamate biosynthesis II
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-glutamate biosynthesis II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-glutamate Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Homo sapiens

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Opisthokonta

Glutamate is biosynthesized in the mitochondrion from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate. As shown in this pathway, glutamate dehydrogenase NAD(P)+ produces glutamate by reductive amination of α-ketoglutarate with ammonia. Glutamate is a precursor of proline, ornithine, arginine and glutamine [Salway04, Voet04].

Other reactions of glutamate biosynthesis are also found. In bacteria, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase are both involved in ammonia assimilation. Glutamate synthase (NADPH) (see pathway L-glutamate biosynthesis I) is widespread in bacteria and is utilized at low concentrations of ammonia. Glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) (see pathway L-glutamate biosynthesis III) does not appear to operate when ammonia is scarce [Gottschalk86]. In fungi and plants, glutamate synthase (NADH) is also involved in ammonia assimilation (see pathway L-glutamate biosynthesis IV). Plants and cyanobacteria [Navarro00] can use a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (see pathway L-glutamate biosynthesis V).

Superpathways: L-glutamate and L-glutamine biosynthesis

Variants: L-arginine degradation I (arginase pathway), L-glutamate biosynthesis I, L-glutamate biosynthesis III, L-glutamate biosynthesis IV, L-glutamate biosynthesis V

Revised 07-Mar-2007 by Fulcher CA, SRI International


Gottschalk86: Gottschalk, G "Bacterial Metabolism, Second Edition." Springer-Verlag, New York. 1986.

Navarro00: Navarro F, Martin-Figueroa E, Candau P, Florencio FJ (2000). "Ferredoxin-dependent iron-sulfur flavoprotein glutamate synthase (GlsF) from the Cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: expression and assembly in Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 379(2);267-76. PMID: 10898944

Salway04: Salway JG (2004). "Metabolism at a Glance." 3rd ed, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA.

Voet04: Voet D, Voet JG (2004). "Biochemistry, 3rd Edition." John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Fang02: Fang J, Hsu BY, MacMullen CM, Poncz M, Smith TJ, Stanley CA (2002). "Expression, purification and characterization of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) allosteric regulatory mutations." Biochem J 363(Pt 1);81-7. PMID: 11903050

Hussain89: Hussain MM, Zannis VI, Plaitakis A (1989). "Characterization of glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins purified from the cerebellum of normal subjects and patients with degenerative neurological disorders, and from human neoplastic cell lines." J Biol Chem 264(34);20730-5. PMID: 2573605

Julliard78: Julliard JH, Crastes de Paulet A (1978). "Human placental glutamate dehydrogenase. Purification--kinetic and regulatory properties--physicochemical studies." Biochimie 60(11-12);1329-32. PMID: 753382

Kimura77: Kimura K, Miyakawa A, Imai T, Sasakawa T (1977). "Glutamate dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis PCI 219. I. Purification and properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 81(2);467-76. PMID: 14949

Kort97: Kort R, Liebl W, Labedan B, Forterre P, Eggen RI, de Vos WM (1997). "Glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: molecular characterization and phylogenetic implications." Extremophiles 1997;1(1);52-60. PMID: 9680336

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lebbink98: Lebbink JH, Knapp S, van der Oost J, Rice D, Ladenstein R, de Vos WM (1998). "Engineering activity and stability of Thermotoga maritima glutamate dehydrogenase. I. Introduction of a six-residue ion-pair network in the hinge region." J Mol Biol 1998;280(2);287-96. PMID: 9654452

Lebbink99: Lebbink JH, Knapp S, van der Oost J, Rice D, Ladenstein R, de Vos WM (1999). "Engineering activity and stability of Thermotoga maritima glutamate dehydrogenase. II: construction of a 16-residue ion-pair network at the subunit interface." J Mol Biol 1999;289(2);357-69. PMID: 10366510

Michaelidis93: Michaelidis TM, Tzimagiorgis G, Moschonas NK, Papamatheakis J (1993). "The human glutamate dehydrogenase gene family: gene organization and structural characterization." Genomics 16(1);150-60. PMID: 8486350

Purnell97: Purnell MP, Stewart GR, Botella JR (1997). "Cloning and characterisation of a glutamate dehydrogenase cDNA from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)." Gene 186(2);249-54. PMID: 9074503

Shashidharan94: Shashidharan P, Michaelidis TM, Robakis NK, Kresovali A, Papamatheakis J, Plaitakis A (1994). "Novel human glutamate dehydrogenase expressed in neural and testicular tissues and encoded by an X-linked intronless gene." J Biol Chem 269(24);16971-6. PMID: 8207021

Tanizawa02: Tanizawa Y, Nakai K, Sasaki T, Anno T, Ohta Y, Inoue H, Matsuo K, Koga M, Furukawa S, Oka Y (2002). "Unregulated elevation of glutamate dehydrogenase activity induces glutamine-stimulated insulin secretion: identification and characterization of a GLUD1 gene mutation and insulin secretion studies with MIN6 cells overexpressing the mutant glutamate dehydrogenase." Diabetes 51(3);712-7. PMID: 11872671

Zaganas02: Zaganas I, Plaitakis A (2002). "Single amino acid substitution (G456A) in the vicinity of the GTP binding domain of human housekeeping glutamate dehydrogenase markedly attenuates GTP inhibition and abolishes the cooperative behavior of the enzyme." J Biol Chem 277(29);26422-8. PMID: 11950837

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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