This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: phospholipase pathway
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Fatty Acid and Lipids Degradation|
Phospholipases hydrolyze phospholipids, and are ubiquitous in all organisms. In plants, at least four types of phospholipases have been reported including phospholipase A1 (PLA1), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD). PLAs are directly implicated in the removal of unusual fatty acids from phospholipids for their integration into triacylglycerol. PLAs are also involved in plant signal transduction, such as responding to auxin stimulation of growth, pathogen and elicitor (reviewed in [Ryu04]).
PLCs hydrolyze phosphotidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and are thus important in secondary messenger pathways [Otterhag01]. Broad physiological activities have been postulated for PLDs, including plant responses to abscisic acid, ethylene, wounding, pathogen elicitation, seed germination, water loss, and nodulation [Wang01b].
PLA1 and PLA2 specifically hydrolyze the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl ester bond of phospholipids, respectively. In addition to PLA, phospholipase B (PLB) sequentially removes both sn-1 and sn-2 acyl groups of phospholipids.
Unification Links: AraCyc:LIPASYN-PWY
Revised 11-Sep-2008 by Zhang P
Gaude08: Gaude N, Nakamura Y, Scheible WR, Ohta H, Dormann P (2008). "Phospholipase C5 (NPC5) is involved in galactolipid accumulation during phosphate limitation in leaves of Arabidopsis." Plant J NIL. PMID: 18564386
Holk02: Holk A, Rietz S, Zahn M, Quader H, Scherer GF (2002). "Molecular identification of cytosolic, patatin-related phospholipases A from Arabidopsis with potential functions in plant signal transduction." Plant Physiol 130(1);90-101. PMID: 12226489
Ishiguro01a: Ishiguro S, Kawai-Oda A, Ueda J, Nishida I, Okada K (2001). "The DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCIENCE gene encodes a novel phospholipase A1 catalyzing the initial step of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, which synchronizes pollen maturation, anther dehiscence, and flower opening in Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 2001;13(10);2191-209. PMID: 11595796
Noiriel04: Noiriel A, Benveniste P, Banas A, Stymne S, Bouvier-Nave P (2004). "Expression in yeast of a novel phospholipase A1 cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana." Eur J Biochem 271(18);3752-64. PMID: 15355352
Otterhag01: Otterhag L, Sommarin M, Pical C (2001). "N-terminal EF-hand-like domain is required for phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity in Arabidopsis thaliana." FEBS Lett 2001;497(2-3);165-70. PMID: 11377433
Ryu05: Ryu SB, Lee HY, Doelling JH, Palta JP (2005). "Characterization of a cDNA encoding Arabidopsis secretory phospholipase A2-alpha, an enzyme that generates bioactive lysophospholipids and free fatty acids." Biochim Biophys Acta 1736(2);144-51. PMID: 16140037
Fan99: Fan L, Zheng S, Cui D, Wang X (1999). "Subcellular distribution and tissue expression of phospholipase Dalpha, Dbeta, and Dgamma in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 1999;119(4);1371-8. PMID: 10198096
Hirayama95: Hirayama T, Ohto C, Mizoguchi T, Shinozaki K (1995). "A gene encoding a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C is induced by dehydration and salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92(9);3903-7. PMID: 7732004
Kim11d: Kim EY, Seo YS, Kim WT (2011). "AtDSEL, an Arabidopsis cytosolic DAD1-like acylhydrolase, is involved in negative regulation of storage oil mobilization during seedling establishment." J Plant Physiol. PMID: 21477884
Lopez01: Lopez I, Mak EC, Ding J, Hamm HE, Lomasney JW (2001). "A novel bifunctional phospholipase c that is regulated by Galpha 12 and stimulates the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway." J Biol Chem 276(4);2758-65. PMID: 11022047
Melin92: Melin PM, Pical C, Jergil B, Sommarin M (1992). "Polyphosphoinositide phospholipase C in wheat root plasma membranes. Partial purification and characterization." Biochim Biophys Acta 1123(2);163-9. PMID: 1310875
Mou02: Mou Z, Wang X, Fu Z, Dai Y, Han C, Ouyang J, Bao F, Hu Y, Li J (2002). "Silencing of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase results in temperature-sensitive male sterility and salt hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 14(9);2031-43. PMID: 12215503
Qin02a: Qin C, Wang X (2002). "The Arabidopsis phospholipase D family. Characterization of a calcium-independent and phosphatidylcholine-selective PLD zeta 1 with distinct regulatory domains." Plant Physiol 2002;128(3);1057-68. PMID: 11891260
Rohde02: Rohde G, Wenzel D, Haucke V (2002). "A phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding site within mu2-adaptin regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis." J Cell Biol 158(2);209-14. PMID: 12119359
Shimohama98: Shimohama S, Kamiya S, Fujii M, Ogawa T, Kanamori M, Kawamata J, Imura T, Taniguchi T, Yagisawa H (1998). "Mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of the human phospholipase C-delta 1 gene is associated with loss of function." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 245(3);722-8. PMID: 9588182
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