MetaCyc Pathway: phospholipases
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: phospholipases

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: phospholipase pathway

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationFatty Acid and Lipids Degradation
Metabolic Clusters

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Glycine max

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota

Phospholipases hydrolyze phospholipids, and are ubiquitous in all organisms. In plants, at least four types of phospholipases have been reported including phospholipase A1 (PLA1), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD). PLAs are directly implicated in the removal of unusual fatty acids from phospholipids for their integration into triacylglycerol. PLAs are also involved in plant signal transduction, such as responding to auxin stimulation of growth, pathogen and elicitor (reviewed in [Ryu04]).

PLCs hydrolyze phosphotidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and are thus important in secondary messenger pathways [Otterhag01]. Broad physiological activities have been postulated for PLDs, including plant responses to abscisic acid, ethylene, wounding, pathogen elicitation, seed germination, water loss, and nodulation [Wang01d].

PLA1 and PLA2 specifically hydrolyze the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl ester bond of phospholipids, respectively. In addition to PLA, phospholipase B (PLB) sequentially removes both sn-1 and sn-2 acyl groups of phospholipids.

Citations: [Noiriel04, Holk02, Ishiguro01 , Ryu05 , Gaude08]

Unification Links: AraCyc:LIPASYN-PWY

Revised 11-Sep-2008 by Zhang P


Gaude08: Gaude N, Nakamura Y, Scheible WR, Ohta H, Dormann P (2008). "Phospholipase C5 (NPC5) is involved in galactolipid accumulation during phosphate limitation in leaves of Arabidopsis." Plant J NIL. PMID: 18564386

Holk02: Holk A, Rietz S, Zahn M, Quader H, Scherer GF (2002). "Molecular identification of cytosolic, patatin-related phospholipases A from Arabidopsis with potential functions in plant signal transduction." Plant Physiol 130(1);90-101. PMID: 12226489

Ishiguro01: Ishiguro S, Kawai-Oda A, Ueda J, Nishida I, Okada K (2001). "The DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCIENCE gene encodes a novel phospholipase A1 catalyzing the initial step of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, which synchronizes pollen maturation, anther dehiscence, and flower opening in Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 2001;13(10);2191-209. PMID: 11595796

Noiriel04: Noiriel A, Benveniste P, Banas A, Stymne S, Bouvier-Nave P (2004). "Expression in yeast of a novel phospholipase A1 cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana." Eur J Biochem 271(18);3752-64. PMID: 15355352

Otterhag01: Otterhag L, Sommarin M, Pical C (2001). "N-terminal EF-hand-like domain is required for phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity in Arabidopsis thaliana." FEBS Lett 2001;497(2-3);165-70. PMID: 11377433

Ryu04: Ryu SB (2004). "Phospholipid-derived signaling mediated by phospholipase A in plants." Trends Plant Sci 9(5);229-35. PMID: 15130548

Ryu05: Ryu SB, Lee HY, Doelling JH, Palta JP (2005). "Characterization of a cDNA encoding Arabidopsis secretory phospholipase A2-alpha, an enzyme that generates bioactive lysophospholipids and free fatty acids." Biochim Biophys Acta 1736(2);144-51. PMID: 16140037

Wang01d: Wang C, Wang X (2001). "A novel phospholipase D of Arabidopsis that is activated by oleic acid and associated with the plasma membrane." Plant Physiol 2001;127(3);1102-12. PMID: 11706190

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Bahn03: Bahn SC, Lee HY, Kim HJ, Ryu SB, Shin JS (2003). "Characterization of Arabidopsis secretory phospholipase A2-gamma cDNA and its enzymatic properties." FEBS Lett 553(1-2);113-8. PMID: 14550557

Fan99: Fan L, Zheng S, Cui D, Wang X (1999). "Subcellular distribution and tissue expression of phospholipase Dalpha, Dbeta, and Dgamma in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 1999;119(4);1371-8. PMID: 10198096

Hirayama95: Hirayama T, Ohto C, Mizoguchi T, Shinozaki K (1995). "A gene encoding a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C is induced by dehydration and salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92(9);3903-7. PMID: 7732004

Kim11c: Kim EY, Seo YS, Kim WT (2011). "AtDSEL, an Arabidopsis cytosolic DAD1-like acylhydrolase, is involved in negative regulation of storage oil mobilization during seedling establishment." J Plant Physiol. PMID: 21477884

Kirk99: Kirk Pappan, Xuemin Wang "Molecular and biochemical properties and physiological roles of plant phospholipase D." Biochimica Biophysica Acta (1999) 1439: 151-166.

Kramer91: Kramer RM, Roberts EF, Manetta J, Putnam JE (1991). "The Ca2(+)-sensitive cytosolic phospholipase A2 is a 100-kDa protein in human monoblast U937 cells." J Biol Chem 266(8);5268-72. PMID: 2002059

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lecompte08: Lecompte O, Poch O, Laporte J (2008). "PtdIns5P regulation through evolution: roles in membrane trafficking?." Trends Biochem Sci 33(10);453-60. PMID: 18774718

Lopez01: Lopez I, Mak EC, Ding J, Hamm HE, Lomasney JW (2001). "A novel bifunctional phospholipase c that is regulated by Galpha 12 and stimulates the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway." J Biol Chem 276(4);2758-65. PMID: 11022047

Melin92: Melin PM, Pical C, Jergil B, Sommarin M (1992). "Polyphosphoinositide phospholipase C in wheat root plasma membranes. Partial purification and characterization." Biochim Biophys Acta 1123(2);163-9. PMID: 1310875

Mou02: Mou Z, Wang X, Fu Z, Dai Y, Han C, Ouyang J, Bao F, Hu Y, Li J (2002). "Silencing of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase results in temperature-sensitive male sterility and salt hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 14(9);2031-43. PMID: 12215503

Ozdener02: Ozdener F, Dangelmaier C, Ashby B, Kunapuli SP, Daniel JL (2002). "Activation of phospholipase Cgamma2 by tyrosine phosphorylation." Mol Pharmacol 62(3);672-9. PMID: 12181444

Ozdener02a: Ozdener F, Kunapuli SP, Daniel JL (2002). "Expression of enzymatically-active phospholipase Cgamma2 in E. coli." J Biochem Mol Biol 35(5);508-12. PMID: 12359094

Park92: Park D, Jhon DY, Kriz R, Knopf J, Rhee SG (1992). "Cloning, sequencing, expression, and Gq-independent activation of phospholipase C-beta 2." J Biol Chem 267(23);16048-55. PMID: 1644792

Qin02: Qin C, Wang X (2002). "The Arabidopsis phospholipase D family. Characterization of a calcium-independent and phosphatidylcholine-selective PLD zeta 1 with distinct regulatory domains." Plant Physiol 2002;128(3);1057-68. PMID: 11891260

Ramoni01: Ramoni C, Spadaro F, Menegon M, Podo F (2001). "Cellular localization and functional role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C in NK cells." J Immunol 167(5);2642-50. PMID: 11509606

Rohde02: Rohde G, Wenzel D, Haucke V (2002). "A phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding site within mu2-adaptin regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis." J Cell Biol 158(2);209-14. PMID: 12119359

Scansetti75: Scansetti G, Coscia GC, Pisani W, Rubino GF (1975). "Cement, asbestos, and cement-asbestos pneumoconioses." Arch Environ Health 1975;30(6);272-5. PMID: 1137433

Sharp91: Sharp JD, White DL, Chiou XG, Goodson T, Gamboa GC, McClure D, Burgett S, Hoskins J, Skatrud PL, Sportsman JR (1991). "Molecular cloning and expression of human Ca(2+)-sensitive cytosolic phospholipase A2." J Biol Chem 266(23);14850-3. PMID: 1869522

Shimohama98: Shimohama S, Kamiya S, Fujii M, Ogawa T, Kanamori M, Kawamata J, Imura T, Taniguchi T, Yagisawa H (1998). "Mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of the human phospholipase C-delta 1 gene is associated with loss of function." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 245(3);722-8. PMID: 9588182

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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