This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cell Structures Biosynthesis → Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis → O-Antigen Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655
Expected Taxonomic Range:
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a major outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. Unlike the Gram-positives, which have a thick peptidoglycan layer, the Gram-negatives have a single layer of peptidoglycan between the inner and outer lipid bilayer membranes, but their surface is covered with lipopolysaccharides. The presence of LPS in the outer membrane confers stability to the bacterial membrane, protection against bacteriophages and the action of certain antibiotics, as well as protection against the host defence mechanism during infections.
LPS is composed of a lipid moiety (lipid A) that anchors the molecule in the outer membrane, and a polysaccharide moiety that extends out of the cell wall. The polysaccharide moiety is further divided into the core, which is an oligosaccharide consisting of an inner and outer region, and a distal repeating unit known as O-antigen.
The O-specific chain is the part of the LPS that shows the largest variation between species and the part that evokes a specific immune response. Some bacteria do not produce an O-antigen at all (the LPS of these organisms is called rough-type, because these bacteria produce colonies with rough edges when growing on agar plates).
All O-antigens are attached to the core and consist of repeated oligosaccharide units.
Escherichia coli K12 produces an O-antigen composed of four sugars: glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and rhamnose.
This pathway depicts the synthesis of three of these sugars. UDP-galactose is transformed from its pyranose form to its furanose form. dTTP glucose-1-phosphate is derivatized to dTDP-rhamnose. Fructose-6-phosphate gains an amino group, incorporates an acetate moiety and then acquires a nucleoside diphosphate resulting in UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. During formation of the repeat unit, the nucleoside diphosphates are removed.
Unification Links: EcoCyc:OANTIGEN-PWY
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