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MetaCyc Pathway: phospholipid biosynthesis II

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: phosphoglyceride biosynthesis

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Fatty Acids and Lipids Biosynthesis Phospholipid Biosynthesis
Superpathways

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Arabidopsis thaliana col , Glycine max , Limnanthes douglasii , Pisum sativum , Ricinus communis , Triticum aestivum , Vigna radiata radiata

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

Summary:
Phospholipids are the major structural components of biological membranes. Some phospholipids (i.e. phosphatidylinositol) also serve as important lipid-signaling molecules. In plants, phospholipids predominate extra-chloroplast membranes including the plasma membrane, mitochondria membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and microsomal membrane, with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine being the major constituents. On the other hand, glycolipids predominate chloroplast envolope and thylakoid membranes. Phosphatidylglycerol is the only phospholipid found in chloroplast thylakoids, and is critical for the structural and functional integrity of the thylakoid membranes.

Phospholipids are mostly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Once synthesized, they are transported to other phospholipid containing membranes. However, genetic and biochemical evidence has demonstrated that phosphatidylglycerol can be synthesized in the plastids [Xu06d]. In addition, mitochondria also contain enzymes for phospholipid synthesis, thus we cannot rule out the possibility that phospholipids can be synthesized there.

Citations: [John]

Subpathways: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I , phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic) , phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic) , phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis II , phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis I , phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I , phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II , phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III , phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV , CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II

Unification Links: AraCyc:PHOSLIPSYN2-PWY

Credits:
Revised 09-Jan-2007 by Zhang P , TAIR
Revised 30-Sep-2008 by Zhang P


References

John: John L. Harwood "Plant Lipid Biosynthesis: fundamentals and agricultural applications." Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521620740.

Xu06d: Xu C, Yu B, Cornish AJ, Froehlich JE, Benning C (2006). "Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in acyl-ACP glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase." Plant J 47(2);296-309. PMID: 16774646

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Aktas10: Aktas M, Wessel M, Hacker S, Klusener S, Gleichenhagen J, Narberhaus F (2010). "Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and its significance in bacteria interacting with eukaryotic cells." Eur J Cell Biol 89(12);888-94. PMID: 20656373

Antonsson94: Antonsson BE (1994). "Purification and characterization of phosphatidylinositol synthase from human placenta." Biochem J 297 ( Pt 3);517-22. PMID: 8110188

Babiychuk03: Babiychuk E, Muller F, Eubel H, Braun HP, Frentzen M, Kushnir S (2003). "Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function." Plant J 33(5);899-909. PMID: 12609031

Beisson07: Beisson F, Li Y, Bonaventure G, Pollard M, Ohlrogge JB (2007). "The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 19(1);351-68. PMID: 17259262

Bligny89: Bligny R, Foray MF, Roby C, Douce R (1989). "Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies." J Biol Chem 264(9);4888-95. PMID: 2925673

Bolognese00: Bolognese CP, McGraw P (2000). "The isolation and characterization in yeast of a gene for Arabidopsis S-adenosylmethionine:phospho-ethanolamine N-methyltransferase." Plant Physiol 124(4);1800-13. PMID: 11115895

Boumann04: Boumann HA, Chin PT, Heck AJ, De Kruijff B, De Kroon AI (2004). "The yeast phospholipid N-methyltransferases catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine preferentially convert di-C16:1 substrates both in vivo and in vitro." J Biol Chem 279(39);40314-9. PMID: 15258140

Boumann05: Boumann HA, de Kroon AI (2005). "The contributions of biosynthesis and acyl chain remodelling to the molecular species profile of phosphatidylcholine in yeast." Biochem Soc Trans 33(Pt 5);1146-9. PMID: 16246068

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Brown02b: Brown AP, Carnaby S, Brough C, Brazier M, Slabas AR (2002). "Limnanthes douglasii lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases: immunological quantification, acyl selectivity and functional replacement of the Escherichia coli plsC gene." Biochem J 364(Pt 3);795-805. PMID: 12049644

Byers07: Byers DM, Gong H (2007). "Acyl carrier protein: structure-function relationships in a conserved multifunctional protein family." Biochem Cell Biol 85(6);649-62. PMID: 18059524

Chang67a: Chang YY, Kennedy EP (1967). "Phosphatidyl glycerophosphate phosphatase." J Lipid Res 8(5);456-62. PMID: 4292860

Chen08a: Chen YQ, Kuo MS, Li S, Bui HH, Peake DA, Sanders PE, Thibodeaux SJ, Chu S, Qian YW, Zhao Y, Bredt DS, Moller DE, Konrad RJ, Beigneux AP, Young SG, Cao G (2008). "AGPAT6 is a novel microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 283(15);10048-57. PMID: 18238778

Clark80a: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897

Coleman90: Coleman J (1990). "Characterization of Escherichia coli cells deficient in 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase activity." J Biol Chem 1990;265(28);17215-21. PMID: 2211622

Collin99: Collin S, Justin AM, Cantrel C, Arondel V, Kader JC (1999). "Identification of AtPIS, a phosphatidylinositol synthase from Arabidopsis." Eur J Biochem 1999;262(3);652-8. PMID: 10411624

COMMUNICATION: Communication, http://arabidopsis.org/servlets/TairObject?accession=Communication:501714663.

COMMUNICATIONa: communication, http://arabidopsis.org/servlets/TairObject?accession=Communication:1675001.

Cui93: Cui Z, Vance JE, Chen MH, Voelker DR, Vance DE (1993). "Cloning and expression of a novel phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. A specific biochemical and cytological marker for a unique membrane fraction in rat liver." J Biol Chem 268(22);16655-63. PMID: 8344945

Datko88: Datko AH, Mudd SH (1988). "Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis: Differing Patterns in Soybean and Carrot." Plant Physiol 88(3);854-861. PMID: 16666397

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Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Wed Nov 26, 2014, biocyc13.