If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: phosphoglyceride biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis → Phospholipid Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
Phospholipids are the major structural components of biological membranes. Some phospholipids (i.e. phosphatidylinositol) also serve as important lipid-signaling molecules. In plants, phospholipids predominate extra-chloroplast membranes including the plasma membrane, mitochondria membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and microsomal membrane, with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine being the major constituents. On the other hand, glycolipids predominate chloroplast envolope and thylakoid membranes. Phosphatidylglycerol is the only phospholipid found in chloroplast thylakoids, and is critical for the structural and functional integrity of the thylakoid membranes.
Phospholipids are mostly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Once synthesized, they are transported to other phospholipid containing membranes. However, genetic and biochemical evidence has demonstrated that phosphatidylglycerol can be synthesized in the plastids [Xu06e]. In addition, mitochondria also contain enzymes for phospholipid synthesis, thus we cannot rule out the possibility that phospholipids can be synthesized there.
Subpathways: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I, phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic), phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic), phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis II, phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis I, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV, CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II
Unification Links: AraCyc:PHOSLIPSYN2-PWY
Xu06e: Xu C, Yu B, Cornish AJ, Froehlich JE, Benning C (2006). "Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in acyl-ACP glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase." Plant J 47(2);296-309. PMID: 16774646
Aktas10: Aktas M, Wessel M, Hacker S, Klusener S, Gleichenhagen J, Narberhaus F (2010). "Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and its significance in bacteria interacting with eukaryotic cells." Eur J Cell Biol 89(12);888-94. PMID: 20656373
Babiychuk03: Babiychuk E, Muller F, Eubel H, Braun HP, Frentzen M, Kushnir S (2003). "Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function." Plant J 33(5);899-909. PMID: 12609031
Beisson07: Beisson F, Li Y, Bonaventure G, Pollard M, Ohlrogge JB (2007). "The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 19(1);351-68. PMID: 17259262
Bligny89: Bligny R, Foray MF, Roby C, Douce R (1989). "Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies." J Biol Chem 264(9);4888-95. PMID: 2925673
Bolognese00: Bolognese CP, McGraw P (2000). "The isolation and characterization in yeast of a gene for Arabidopsis S-adenosylmethionine:phospho-ethanolamine N-methyltransferase." Plant Physiol 124(4);1800-13. PMID: 11115895
Boumann04: Boumann HA, Chin PT, Heck AJ, De Kruijff B, De Kroon AI (2004). "The yeast phospholipid N-methyltransferases catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine preferentially convert di-C16:1 substrates both in vivo and in vitro." J Biol Chem 279(39);40314-9. PMID: 15258140
Boumann05: Boumann HA, de Kroon AI (2005). "The contributions of biosynthesis and acyl chain remodelling to the molecular species profile of phosphatidylcholine in yeast." Biochem Soc Trans 33(Pt 5);1146-9. PMID: 16246068
Brown02c: Brown AP, Carnaby S, Brough C, Brazier M, Slabas AR (2002). "Limnanthes douglasii lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases: immunological quantification, acyl selectivity and functional replacement of the Escherichia coli plsC gene." Biochem J 364(Pt 3);795-805. PMID: 12049644
Chen08a: Chen YQ, Kuo MS, Li S, Bui HH, Peake DA, Sanders PE, Thibodeaux SJ, Chu S, Qian YW, Zhao Y, Bredt DS, Moller DE, Konrad RJ, Beigneux AP, Young SG, Cao G (2008). "AGPAT6 is a novel microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 283(15);10048-57. PMID: 18238778
Clark80: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897
Cui93: Cui Z, Vance JE, Chen MH, Voelker DR, Vance DE (1993). "Cloning and expression of a novel phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. A specific biochemical and cytological marker for a unique membrane fraction in rat liver." J Biol Chem 268(22);16655-63. PMID: 8344945
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