MetaCyc Pathway: oxygenic photosynthesis

Pathway diagram: oxygenic photosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: C3 photosynthesis

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyPhotosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

Expected Taxonomic Range: Cryptophyta, Cyanobacteria, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Haptophyceae, Rhizaria, Rhodophyta, Stramenopiles, Viridiplantae

Photosynthesis is a process in which energy from sunlight is harvested and used to fix CO2 into carbohydrates. Photosynthesis occurrs in bacteria, algae, phytoplankton and higher plants. During photosynthesis the solar energy is trapped by light-harvesting complexes, and used to split a donor molecule, generating high potential electrons that are channeled to NADP+, forming NADPH, which can be used to reduce CO2.

In oxygenic photosynthesis the donor molecule is water, resulting in the release of molecular oxygen. Some bacteria perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, in which different donor molecules are used for production of high potential electrons. An example are phototrophic sufur bacteria, which use sulfide, releasing molecular sulfur as a by-product.

Photosynthesis is divided into two general subprocesses: the "light reactions" and the "dark reactions". The light reactions comprise the trapping of sunlight, the production of NADPH and ATP, and the release of molecular oxygen (see photosynthesis light reactions).

The dark reactions, better known as the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, comprise of the use of NADPH and ATP to fix CO2 and produce carbohydrates [Mathews95].

Superpathways: ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered)

Subpathways: Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, photosynthesis light reactions

Created 13-Jan-1999 by Pellegrini-Toole A, Marine Biological Laboratory


Mathews95: Mathews CK, van Holde KE (1995). "Biochemistry, Second edition." The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Menlo Park, CA.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Albery76: Albery WJ, Knowles JR (1976). "Free-energy profile of the reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase." Biochemistry 15(25);5627-31. PMID: 999838

Alvarez98: Alvarez M, Zeelen JP, Mainfroid V, Rentier-Delrue F, Martial JA, Wyns L, Wierenga RK, Maes D (1998). "Triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) of the psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio marinus. Kinetic and structural properties." J Biol Chem 273(4);2199-206. PMID: 9442062

Amichay93: Amichay D, Levitz R, Gurevitz M (1993). "Construction of a Synechocystis PCC6803 mutant suitable for the study of variant hexadecameric ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase enzymes." Plant Mol Biol 23(3);465-76. PMID: 8219082

Anderson75: Anderson L.E., Heinrikson R.L., Noyes C. "Chloroplast and cytoplasmic enzymes." Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1975) 169:262-268.

Armbruster10: Armbruster U, Zuhlke J, Rengstl B, Kreller R, Makarenko E, Ruhle T, Schunemann D, Jahns P, Weisshaar B, Nickelsen J, Leister D (2010). "The Arabidopsis thylakoid protein PAM68 is required for efficient D1 biogenesis and photosystem II assembly." Plant Cell 22(10);3439-60. PMID: 20923938

Babul83: Babul J, Guixe V (1983). "Fructose bisphosphatase from Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 1983;225(2);944-9. PMID: 6312898

Bairoch93a: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Baldwin78: Baldwin SA, Perham RN (1978). "Novel kinetic and structural properties of the class-I D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain)." Biochem J 1978;169(3);643-52. PMID: 348198

Baldwin78a: Baldwin SA, Perham RN, Stribling D (1978). "Purification and characterization of the class-II D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain)." Biochem J 1978;169(3);633-41. PMID: 417719

Baniulis: Baniulis D, Yamashita E, Zhang H, Hasan SS, Cramer WA "Structure-function of the cytochrome b6f complex." Photochem Photobiol 84(6);1349-58. PMID: 19067956

Baniulis11: Baniulis D, Zhang H, Zakharova T, Hasan SS, Cramer WA (2011). "Purification and crystallization of the cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f complex." Methods Mol Biol 684;65-77. PMID: 20960122

Barber06: Barber J (2006). "Photosystem II: an enzyme of global significance." Biochem Soc Trans 34(Pt 5);619-31. PMID: 17052167

Barros99: Barros MH, Nobrega FG (1999). "YAH1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new essential gene that codes for a protein homologous to human adrenodoxin." Gene 233(1-2);197-203. PMID: 10375636

Beaucamp97: Beaucamp N, Hofmann A, Kellerer B, Jaenicke R (1997). "Dissection of the gene of the bifunctional PGK-TIM fusion protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: design and characterization of the separate triosephosphate isomerase." Protein Sci 1997;6(10);2159-65. PMID: 9336838

Beaucamp97a: Beaucamp N, Schurig H, Jaenicke R (1997). "The PGK-TIM fusion protein from Thermotoga maritima and its constituent parts are intrinsically stable and fold independently." Biol Chem 1997;378(7);679-85. PMID: 9278147

Benov99: Benov L, Fridovich I (1999). "Why superoxide imposes an aromatic amino acid auxotrophy on Escherichia coli. The transketolase connection." J Biol Chem 274(7);4202-6. PMID: 9933617

Berry93: Berry A, Marshall KE (1993). "Identification of zinc-binding ligands in the class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 318(1);11-6. PMID: 8436219

Berthiaume89: Berthiaume L, Beaudry D, Lazure C, Tolan DR, Sygusch J (1989). "Recombinant anaerobic maize aldolase: overexpression, characterization, and metabolic implications." Arch Biochem Biophys 272(2);281-9. PMID: 2751305

Blom96: Blom NS, Tetreault S, Coulombe R, Sygusch J (1996). "Novel active site in Escherichia coli fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase." Nat Struct Biol 3(10);856-62. PMID: 8836102

Bowien89: Bowien B, editor, Schlegel HG, editor "Autotrophic Bacteria." Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1989.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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