If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: C3 photosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Photosynthesis|
Photosynthesis is a process in which energy from sunlight is harvested and used to fix CO2 into carbohydrates. Photosynthesis occurrs in bacteria, algae, phytoplankton and higher plants. During photosynthesis the solar energy is trapped by light-harvesting complexes, and used to split a donor molecule, generating high potential electrons that are channeled to NADP+, forming NADPH, which can be used to reduce CO2.
In oxygenic photosynthesis the donor molecule is water, resulting in the release of molecular oxygen. Some bacteria perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, in which different donor molecules are used for production of high potential electrons. An example are phototrophic sufur bacteria, which use sulfide, releasing molecular sulfur as a by-product.
Photosynthesis is divided into two general subprocesses: the "light reactions" and the "dark reactions". The light reactions comprise the trapping of sunlight, the production of NADPH and ATP, and the release of molecular oxygen (see photosynthesis light reactions).
Superpathways: ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered)
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Amichay93: Amichay D, Levitz R, Gurevitz M (1993). "Construction of a Synechocystis PCC6803 mutant suitable for the study of variant hexadecameric ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase enzymes." Plant Mol Biol 23(3);465-76. PMID: 8219082
Armbruster10: Armbruster U, Zuhlke J, Rengstl B, Kreller R, Makarenko E, Ruhle T, Schunemann D, Jahns P, Weisshaar B, Nickelsen J, Leister D (2010). "The Arabidopsis thylakoid protein PAM68 is required for efficient D1 biogenesis and photosystem II assembly." Plant Cell 22(10);3439-60. PMID: 20923938
Baldwin78: Baldwin SA, Perham RN, Stribling D (1978). "Purification and characterization of the class-II D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain)." Biochem J 1978;169(3);633-41. PMID: 417719
Baldwin78a: Baldwin SA, Perham RN (1978). "Novel kinetic and structural properties of the class-I D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli (Crookes' strain)." Biochem J 1978;169(3);643-52. PMID: 348198
Beaucamp97: Beaucamp N, Hofmann A, Kellerer B, Jaenicke R (1997). "Dissection of the gene of the bifunctional PGK-TIM fusion protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: design and characterization of the separate triosephosphate isomerase." Protein Sci 1997;6(10);2159-65. PMID: 9336838
Beaucamp97a: Beaucamp N, Schurig H, Jaenicke R (1997). "The PGK-TIM fusion protein from Thermotoga maritima and its constituent parts are intrinsically stable and fold independently." Biol Chem 1997;378(7);679-85. PMID: 9278147
Berthiaume89: Berthiaume L, Beaudry D, Lazure C, Tolan DR, Sygusch J (1989). "Recombinant anaerobic maize aldolase: overexpression, characterization, and metabolic implications." Arch Biochem Biophys 272(2);281-9. PMID: 2751305
Branny98: Branny P, de la Torre F, Garel JR (1998). "An operon encoding three glycolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 4);905-14. PMID: 9579064
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