If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cell Structures Biosynthesis → Plant Cell Structures|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Tracheophyta
Suberin is a polymeric plant cell wall constituent mainly found in the epidermal tissues of underground plant parts. Suberin consists of two domains, a polyaromatic and a polyaliphatic domain. The polyaromatics are predominately located within the primary cell wall, and the polyaliphatics are located between the primary cell wall and the plasmalemma. The two domains are supposed to be cross-linked. The exact qualitative and quantitative composition of suberin monomers varies in different species. The major monomers found in the potato tuber polyaliphatics are ω-hydroxyacids (mainly 18-hydroxyoleate) and α,ω-diacids (mainly α,ω-9Z-octadecenedioate). The monomers of the polyaromatics are hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives. N-feruloyltyramine is a major aromatic monomer found in suberized potato tubers. In addition to the aromatics and aliphatics components, glycerol has been reported a major suberin component. The role of glycerol is proposed to interlink aliphatic monomers, and possibly also to link polyaliphatics to polyaromatics, during suberin polymer assembly [Beisson07]. The polymerization step of aromatic monomers has been shown to involve a peroxidase reaction.
Note that the biosynthesis of suberin aliphatic monomers shares the same upstream reactions with cutin biosynthesis, and the biosynthesis of the aromatic monomers shares the same upstream reactions with lignin biosynthesis. Although both suberin and cutin contain aliphatic monomers, suberin differs from cutin by the chain length of aliphatic monomers, which can range from C16 to C32 (cutin only contains C16-C18).
The pathway depicted here represents the biosynthesis of the major suberin monomers, namely 18-hydroxyoleate, α,ω-9Z-octadecenedioate, and N-feruloyltyramine, characterized in potato, as well as very long chain aliphatic monomers found in many plants. It also shows the production of 16-hydroxypalmitate, a precursor of an important component of aromatic suberin in Arabidopsis [Molina09, Gou09].
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-1121
Revised 10-Feb-2011 by Zhang P
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Compagnon09: Compagnon V, Diehl P, Benveniste I, Meyer D, Schaller H, Schreiber L, Franke R, Pinot F (2009). "CYP86B1 is required for very long chain omega-hydroxyacid and alpha, omega -dicarboxylic acid synthesis in root and seed suberin polyester." Plant Physiol 150(4);1831-43. PMID: 19525321
Molina09: Molina I, Li-Beisson Y, Beisson F, Ohlrogge JB, Pollard M (2009). "Identification of an Arabidopsis feruloyl-coenzyme A transferase required for suberin synthesis." Plant Physiol 151(3);1317-28. PMID: 19759341
Bais10: Bais P, Moon SM, He K, Leitao R, Dreher K, Walk T, Sucaet Y, Barkan L, Wohlgemuth G, Roth MR, Wurtele ES, Dixon P, Fiehn O, Lange BM, Shulaev V, Sumner LW, Welti R, Nikolau BJ, Rhee SY, Dickerson JA (2010). "PlantMetabolomics.org: a web portal for plant metabolomics experiments." Plant Physiol 152(4);1807-16. PMID: 20147492
Benveniste98: Benveniste I, Tijet N, Adas F, Philipps G, Salaun JP, Durst F (1998). "CYP86A1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acid omega-hydroxylase." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 243(3);688-93. PMID: 9500987
Bhuiya09: Bhuiya MW, Liu CJ (2009). "A cost-effective colorimetric assay for phenolic O-methyltransferases and characterization of caffeate 3-O-methyltransferases from Populus trichocarpa." Anal Biochem 384(1);151-8. PMID: 18926792
Chi09: Chi A, Rhee S (2009). "The functional annotation of Arabidopsis protein sequences was performed by BLAST queries against a reference set of experimentally verified enzymes. For each Arabidopsis sequence, the enzymatic activity of the top BLAST hit (or hits if they had equivalent E-values) was assigned to the protein if its E-value fell below a specific E-value threshold established for the corresponding enzymatic activity. Note: The annotation thresholds were established by doing a self BLAST of the reference enzyme dataset. For each enzymatic activity represented by multiple proteins, the mean E-value of all the correct hits generated by the self BLAST was selected as the cut-off. All of these means were averaged and used as the cut-off for assigning annotations for any enzymatic activities that were represented by a single protein in the reference dataset."
Curry99: Curry, J, Aluru, M, Mendoza, M, Nevarez, J, Melendrez, M, O' Connell, M. A (1999). "Transcripts for posssible capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes are differentially accumulated in pungent and non-pungent Capsicum." Plant Science, 148, 47-57.
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Hohlfeld95: Hohlfeld H, Schurmann W, Scheel D, Strack D (1995). "Partial Purification and Characterization of Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:Tyramine Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from Cell Suspension Cultures of Solanum tuberosum." Plant Physiol 107(2);545-552. PMID: 12228382
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