If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cell Structures Biosynthesis → Plant Cell Structures|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Tracheophyta
Suberin is a polymeric plant cell wall constituent mainly found in the epidermal tissues of underground plant parts. Suberin consists of two domains, a polyaromatic and a polyaliphatic domain. The polyaromatics are predominately located within the primary cell wall, and the polyaliphatics are located between the primary cell wall and the plasmalemma. The two domains are supposed to be cross-linked. The exact qualitative and quantitative composition of suberin monomers varies in different species. The major monomers found in the potato tuber polyaliphatics are ω-hydroxyacids (mainly 18-hydroxyoleate) and α,ω-diacids (mainly α,ω-9Z-octadecenedioate). The monomers of the polyaromatics are hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives. N-feruloyltyramine is a major aromatic monomer found in suberized potato tubers. In addition to the aromatics and aliphatics components, glycerol has been reported a major suberin component. The role of glycerol is proposed to interlink aliphatic monomers, and possibly also to link polyaliphatics to polyaromatics, during suberin polymer assembly [Beisson07]. The polymerization step of aromatic monomers has been shown to involve a peroxidase reaction.
Note that the biosynthesis of suberin aliphatic monomers shares the same upstream reactions with cutin biosynthesis, and the biosynthesis of the aromatic monomers shares the same upstream reactions with lignin biosynthesis. Although both suberin and cutin contain aliphatic monomers, suberin differs from cutin by the chain length of aliphatic monomers, which can range from C16 to C32 (cutin only contains C16-C18).
The pathway depicted here represents the biosynthesis of the major suberin monomers, namely 18-hydroxyoleate, α,ω-9Z-octadecenedioate, and N-feruloyltyramine, characterized in potato, as well as very long chain aliphatic monomers found in many plants. It also shows the production of 16-hydroxypalmitate, a precursor of an important component of aromatic suberin in Arabidopsis [Molina09, Gou09].
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-1121
Revised 10-Feb-2011 by Zhang P
Beisson07: Beisson F, Li Y, Bonaventure G, Pollard M, Ohlrogge JB (2007). "The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 19(1);351-68. PMID: 17259262
Compagnon09: Compagnon V, Diehl P, Benveniste I, Meyer D, Schaller H, Schreiber L, Franke R, Pinot F (2009). "CYP86B1 is required for very long chain omega-hydroxyacid and alpha, omega -dicarboxylic acid synthesis in root and seed suberin polyester." Plant Physiol 150(4);1831-43. PMID: 19525321
Molina09: Molina I, Li-Beisson Y, Beisson F, Ohlrogge JB, Pollard M (2009). "Identification of an Arabidopsis feruloyl-coenzyme A transferase required for suberin synthesis." Plant Physiol 151(3);1317-28. PMID: 19759341
Bais10: Bais P, Moon SM, He K, Leitao R, Dreher K, Walk T, Sucaet Y, Barkan L, Wohlgemuth G, Roth MR, Wurtele ES, Dixon P, Fiehn O, Lange BM, Shulaev V, Sumner LW, Welti R, Nikolau BJ, Rhee SY, Dickerson JA (2010). "PlantMetabolomics.org: a web portal for plant metabolomics experiments." Plant Physiol 152(4);1807-16. PMID: 20147492
Benveniste98: Benveniste I, Tijet N, Adas F, Philipps G, Salaun JP, Durst F (1998). "CYP86A1 from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acid omega-hydroxylase." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 243(3);688-93. PMID: 9500987
Bhuiya09: Bhuiya MW, Liu CJ (2009). "A cost-effective colorimetric assay for phenolic O-methyltransferases and characterization of caffeate 3-O-methyltransferases from Populus trichocarpa." Anal Biochem 384(1);151-8. PMID: 18926792
Chi09: Chi A, Rhee S (2009). "The functional annotation of Arabidopsis protein sequences was performed by BLAST queries against a reference set of experimentally verified enzymes. For each Arabidopsis sequence, the enzymatic activity of the top BLAST hit (or hits if they had equivalent E-values) was assigned to the protein if its E-value fell below a specific E-value threshold established for the corresponding enzymatic activity. Note: The annotation thresholds were established by doing a self BLAST of the reference enzyme dataset. For each enzymatic activity represented by multiple proteins, the mean E-value of all the correct hits generated by the self BLAST was selected as the cut-off. All of these means were averaged and used as the cut-off for assigning annotations for any enzymatic activities that were represented by a single protein in the reference dataset."
Curry99: Curry, J, Aluru, M, Mendoza, M, Nevarez, J, Melendrez, M, O' Connell, M. A (1999). "Transcripts for posssible capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes are differentially accumulated in pungent and non-pungent Capsicum." Plant Science, 148, 47-57.
Dobritsa09: Dobritsa AA, Shrestha J, Morant M, Pinot F, Matsuno M, Swanson R, Moller BL, Preuss D (2009). "CYP704B1 is a long-chain fatty acid omega-hydroxylase essential for sporopollenin synthesis in pollen of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 151(2);574-89. PMID: 19700560
Ehlting99: Ehlting J, Buttner D, Wang Q, Douglas CJ, Somssich IE, Kombrink E (1999). "Three 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases in Arabidopsis thaliana represent two evolutionarily divergent classes in angiosperms." Plant J 1999;19(1);9-20. PMID: 10417722
Franke02: Franke R, Humphreys JM, Hemm MR, Denault JW, Ruegger MO, Cusumano JC, Chapple C (2002). "The Arabidopsis REF8 gene encodes the 3-hydroxylase of phenylpropanoid metabolism." Plant J 30(1);33-45. PMID: 11967091
Franke02a: Franke R, Hemm MR, Denault JW, Ruegger MO, Humphreys JM, Chapple C (2002). "Changes in secondary metabolism and deposition of an unusual lignin in the ref8 mutant of Arabidopsis." Plant J 30(1);47-59. PMID: 11967092
Goldfine71: Goldfine H, Panos C (1971). "Phospholipids of Clostridium butyricum. IV. Analysis of the positional isomers of monounsaturated and cyclopropane fatty acids and alk-1'-enyl ethers by capillary column chromatography." J Lipid Res 12(2);214-20. PMID: 5554109
Grienenberger09: Grienenberger E, Besseau S, Geoffroy P, Debayle D, Heintz D, Lapierre C, Pollet B, Heitz T, Legrand M (2009). "A BAHD acyltransferase is expressed in the tapetum of Arabidopsis anthers and is involved in the synthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl spermidines." Plant J 58(2);246-59. PMID: 19077165
Hamberger04: Hamberger B, Hahlbrock K (2004). "The 4-coumarate:CoA ligase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises one rare, sinapate-activating and three commonly occurring isoenzymes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(7);2209-14. PMID: 14769935
Hofer08: Hofer R, Briesen I, Beck M, Pinot F, Schreiber L, Franke R (2008). "The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 CYP86A1 encodes a fatty acid omega-hydroxylase involved in suberin monomer biosynthesis." J Exp Bot 59(9);2347-60. PMID: 18544608
Hohlfeld95: Hohlfeld H, Schurmann W, Scheel D, Strack D (1995). "Partial Purification and Characterization of Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:Tyramine Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from Cell Suspension Cultures of Solanum tuberosum." Plant Physiol 107(2);545-552. PMID: 12228382
Huang14: Huang FC, Peter A, Schwab W (2014). "Expression and characterization of CYP52 genes involved in the biosynthesis of sophorolipid and alkane metabolism from Starmerella bombicola." Appl Environ Microbiol 80(2);766-76. PMID: 24242247
Humphreys99: Humphreys JM, Hemm MR, Chapple C (1999). "New routes for lignin biosynthesis defined by biochemical characterization of recombinant ferulate 5-hydroxylase, a multifunctional cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96(18);10045-50. PMID: 10468559
Hunt06: Hunt MC, Rautanen A, Westin MA, Svensson LT, Alexson SE (2006). "Analysis of the mouse and human acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT) gene clusters shows that convergent, functional evolution results in a reduced number of human peroxisomal ACOTs." FASEB J 20(11);1855-64. PMID: 16940157
Ibdah03: Ibdah M, Zhang XH, Schmidt J, Vogt T (2003). "A novel Mg(2+)-dependent O-methyltransferase in the phenylpropanoid metabolism of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum." J Biol Chem 278(45);43961-72. PMID: 12941960
Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".
©2016 SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025-3493