MetaCyc Pathway: trehalose degradation IV

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: trehalose degradation IV

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation Carbohydrates Degradation Sugars Degradation Trehalose Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Asanoa ferruginea , Bradyrhizobium japonicum , Euglena gracilis , Flammulina velutipes , Geobacillus stearothermophilus , Kocuria varians , Plesiomonas sp. Yoshida 95 , Scytonema sp. , Thermoanaerobacter brockii

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Euglenozoa , Fungi

General Background

There are several alternative pathways for the degradation of trehalose. Depending on the organism, trehalose may enter the cell either through a permease, in which case it remains unmodified, or it may be transported by a phosphotransferase system (PTS), resulting in the phoshorylated trehalose-6-phosphate form. Degradation then proceeds by different mechanisms: Unmodified trehalose may be degraded by a hydrolyzing trehalase (see trehalose degradation II (trehalase)), or it may be split by the action of a trehalose phosphorylase (see trehalose degradation IV and trehalose degradation V). Likewise, trehalose-6-phosphate may be either hydrolyzed by trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase (see trehalose degradation I (low osmolarity)) or it could be attacked by a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphorylase (see trehalose degradation III).

About This Pathway

Trehalose phosphorylase (TP), the key enzyme in this pathway, catalyzes the reversible synthesis (and degradation) of trehalose from/to D-glucose 1-phosphate and D-glucose.

Two varieties of TP enzymes have been characterized: One variety is specific for the α forms of D-glucose and D-glucose-1-phosphate, while the other is specific for the β forms. Thus, the two forms catalyze different reactions, and were given different EC numbers (see the pathway trehalose degradation V for the enzymes that use the α form). The glucose-1-phosphate that is formed by the phosphorylase during trehalose degradation is subsequently converted to glucose-6-phosphate by the appropriate phosphoglucomutase (which is also either α- or β-specific).

β-specific TP enzymes have been found in various organisms, including the green algae Euglena gracilis [Belocopitow70, Marechal72], and various bacteria, including Geobacillus stearothermophilus [Inoue02a, Inoue02b], Asanoa ferruginea [Aisaka98, Aisaka95], Thermoanaerobacter brockii, Plesiomonas sp. Yoshida 95 [Yoshida95], Bradyrhizobium japonicum and the cyanobacterium Scytonema sp. [PageSharp99].

Variants: trehalose degradation I (low osmolarity) , trehalose degradation II (trehalase) , trehalose degradation III , trehalose degradation V , trehalose degradation VI (periplasmic)

Created 01-Feb-2005 by Caspi R , SRI International


Aisaka95: Aisaka K, Masuda T (1995). "Production of trehalose phosphorylase by Catellatospora ferruginea." FEMS Microbiol Lett 131(1);47-51. PMID: 7557309

Aisaka98: Aisaka K, Masuda T, Chikamune T, Kamitori K (1998). "Purification and characterization of trehalose phosphorylase from Catellatospora ferruginea." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62(4);782-7. PMID: 9614710

Belocopitow70: Belocopitow E, Marechal LR (1970). "Trehalose phosphorylase from Euglena gracilis." Biochim Biophys Acta 198(1);151-4. PMID: 5413942

Inoue02a: Inoue Y, Yasutake N, Oshima Y, Yamamoto Y, Tomita T, Miyoshi S, Yatake T (2002). "Cloning of the maltose phosphorylase gene from Bacillus sp. strain RK-1 and efficient production of the cloned gene and the trehalose phosphorylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus SK-1 in Bacillus subtilis." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66(12);2594-9. PMID: 12596853

Inoue02b: Inoue Y, Ishii K, Tomita T, Yatake T, Fukui F (2002). "Characterization of trehalose phosphorylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus SK-1 and nucleotide sequence of the corresponding gene." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66(9);1835-43. PMID: 12400680

Marechal72: Marechal LR, Belocopitow E (1972). "Metabolism of trehalose in Euglena gracilis. I. Partial purification and some properties of trehalose phosphorylase." J Biol Chem 247(10);3223-8. PMID: 4623846

PageSharp99: Page-Sharp M, Behm CA, Smith GD (1999). "Involvement of the compatible solutes trehalose and sucrose in the response to salt stress of a cyanobacterial Scytonema species isolated from desert soils." Biochim Biophys Acta 1472(3);519-28. PMID: 10564766

Yoshida95: Yoshida M, Nakamura N, Horikoshi K (1995). "Production and application of maltose phosphorylase and trehalose phosphorylase by a strain of Plesiomonas (In Japanese)." Oyo Toshitsu Kagaku 42:1925.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arguelles00: Arguelles JC (2000). "Physiological roles of trehalose in bacteria and yeasts: a comparative analysis." Arch Microbiol 174(4);217-24. PMID: 11081789

Asensio58: Asensio C, Sols A (1958). "Utilization and phosphorylation of sugars by Escherichia coli." Rev Esp Fisiol 14(4);269-75. PMID: 13658662

Asensio63: Asensio C, Avigad G, Horecker BL (1963). "Preferential galactose utilization in a mutant strain of E. coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 103;299-309. PMID: 14103281

Belocopitow74: Belocopitow E, Marechal LR (1974). "Metabolism of trehalose in Euglena gracilis. Partial purification and some properties of phosphoglucomutase acting on beta-glucose 1-phosphate." Eur J Biochem 46(3);631-7. PMID: 4212162

BenZvi61: Ben-Zvi, Ruth, Schramm, Michael (1961). "A Phosphoglucomutase Specific for β-Glucose 1-phosphate." J Biol Chem 236(8);2186-89.

Crowe94: Crowe LM, Spargo BJ, Ioneda T, Beaman BL, Crowe JH (1994). "Interaction of cord factor (alpha, alpha'-trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate) with phospholipids." Biochim Biophys Acta 1194(1);53-60. PMID: 8075141

Dai06a: Dai J, Wang L, Allen KN, Radstrom P, Dunaway-Mariano D (2006). "Conformational cycling in beta-phosphoglucomutase catalysis: reorientation of the beta-D-glucose 1,6-(Bis)phosphate intermediate." Biochemistry 45(25);7818-24. PMID: 16784233

Helfert95: Helfert C, Gotsche S, Dahl MK (1995). "Cleavage of trehalose-phosphate in Bacillus subtilis is catalysed by a phospho-alpha-(1-1)-glucosidase encoded by the treA gene." Mol Microbiol 16(1);111-120. PMID: 7651129

Jung14: Jung JH, Seo DH, Holden JF, Park CS (2014). "Identification and Characterization of an Archaeal Kojibiose Catabolic Pathway in the Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04." J Bacteriol 196(5);1122-31. PMID: 24391053

Kizawa95: Kizawa, H., Miyagawa, K., Sugiyama, Y. (1995). "Purification and characterization of trehalose phosphorylase from Micrococcus varians." Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 59(10):1908-1912.

Kuznetsova06: Kuznetsova E, Proudfoot M, Gonzalez CF, Brown G, Omelchenko MV, Borozan I, Carmel L, Wolf YI, Mori H, Savchenko AV, Arrowsmith CH, Koonin EV, Edwards AM, Yakunin AF (2006). "Genome-wide analysis of substrate specificities of the Escherichia coli haloacid dehalogenase-like phosphatase family." J Biol Chem 281(47):36149-61. PMID: 16990279

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lippert93: Lippert K, Galinski EA, Truper HG (1993). "Biosynthesis and function of trehalose in Ectothiorhodospira halochloris." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 63(1);85-91. PMID: 8480996

Magnani92: Magnani M, Bianchi M, Casabianca A, Stocchi V, Daniele A, Altruda F, Ferrone M, Silengo L (1992). "A recombinant human 'mini'-hexokinase is catalytically active and regulated by hexose 6-phosphates." Biochem J 285 ( Pt 1);193-9. PMID: 1637300

Marechal84a: Marechal LR, Oliver G, Veiga LA, de Ruiz Holgado AA (1984). "Partial purification and some properties of beta-phosphoglucomutase from Lactobacillus brevis." Arch Biochem Biophys 228(2);592-9. PMID: 6230052

Meyer97: Meyer D, Schneider-Fresenius C, Horlacher R, Peist R, Boos W (1997). "Molecular characterization of glucokinase from Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 179(4);1298-306. PMID: 9023215

Ogawa07: Ogawa T, Mori H, Tomita M, Yoshino M (2007). "Inhibitory effect of phosphoenolpyruvate on glycolytic enzymes in Escherichia coli." Res Microbiol 158(2);159-63. PMID: 17307338

Qian94: Qian N, Stanley GA, Hahn-Hagerdal B, Radstrom P (1994). "Purification and characterization of two phosphoglucomutases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and their regulation in maltose- and glucose-utilizing cells." J Bacteriol 176(17);5304-11. PMID: 8071206

Richards02: Richards AB, Krakowka S, Dexter LB, Schmid H, Wolterbeek AP, Waalkens-Berendsen DH, Shigoyuki A, Kurimoto M (2002). "Trehalose: a review of properties, history of use and human tolerance, and results of multiple safety studies." Food Chem Toxicol 40(7);871-98. PMID: 12065209

Skarlatos98: Skarlatos P, Dahl MK (1998). "The glucose kinase of Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol 180(12);3222-6. PMID: 9620975

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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