MetaCyc Pathway: cuticular wax biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: cuticular wax biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisCell Structures BiosynthesisPlant Cell StructuresEpidermal Structures
BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

Above-ground epidermal surfaces of vascular plants are covered by a lipophilic layer known as the cuticle. Plant cuticles are composed of cutin ( cutin biosynthesis) and cuticular wax. The major components of cuticular wax are very long chain fatty acids (chain length is greater than 18 carbon) and very long chain fatty acid derived aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, ketones, primary alcohols, and wax esters. The composition of cuticular wax varies among species and even within species in different tissues and at different developmental stages.

Citations: [Millar99, Rowland06, Li08c , Greer07]

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-282, MetaCyc:PWY-282


Greer07: Greer S, Wen M, Bird D, Wu X, Samuels L, Kunst L, Jetter R (2007). "The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP96A15 is the midchain alkane hydroxylase responsible for formation of secondary alcohols and ketones in stem cuticular wax of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 145(3);653-67. PMID: 17905869

Li08c: Li F, Wu X, Lam P, Bird D, Zheng H, Samuels L, Jetter R, Kunst L (2008). "Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 148(1);97-107. PMID: 18621978

Millar99: Millar AA, Clemens S, Zachgo S, Giblin EM, Taylor DC, Kunst L (1999). "CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme." Plant Cell 1999;11(5);825-38. PMID: 10330468

Rowland06: Rowland O, Zheng H, Hepworth SR, Lam P, Jetter R, Kunst L (2006). "CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 142(3);866-77. PMID: 16980563

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Aarts95: Aarts MG, Keijzer CJ, Stiekema WJ, Pereira A (1995). "Molecular characterization of the CER1 gene of arabidopsis involved in epicuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility." Plant Cell 1995;7(12);2115-27. PMID: 8718622

Dey97: Dey, P. M., Harborne, J. B. (1997). "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press Inc., San Diego, USA.

Hannoufa93: Hannoufa, A., McNevin, J., Lemieux, B. (1993). "Epicuticular waxes of eceriferum mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana." Phytochemistry. 33(4):851-855.

Lai07: Lai C, Kunst L, Jetter R (2007). "Composition of alkyl esters in the cuticular wax on inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana cer mutants." Plant J 50(2);189-96. PMID: 17376164

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lubert: Lubert Stryer "Biochemistry." ISBN 0-7167-1226-1.

Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 20.0 (software by SRI International) on Fri May 6, 2016, BIOCYC13.