MetaCyc Pathway: cytokinins 9-N-glucoside biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: cytokinins 9-N-glucoside biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisHormones BiosynthesisPlant Hormones BiosynthesisCytokinins Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col

Expected Taxonomic Range: Embryophyta

Glucosylation of cytokinins is a well recognized modification that is thought to play an important role in hormonal homeostasis. Several types of cytokinins conjugation exist which render cytokinins inactive: O-xylosylation, O-glucosylation, and N-glucosylation. When plants are subjected to high levels of cytokinin application, the major conjugate that forms is the 7-N-glucoside (see cytokinins 7-N-glucoside biosynthesis) [Hou04]. Moreover, unlike O-glucosides, the glucosylation of which is reversible through the action of glucosidases, 7-N- and 9-N-glucosides are resistant to glucosidases [Brzobohaty93]. This, taken with N-glucosides accumulation in plant subjected to high doses of cytokinins, has led to the suggestion that N-glucosylation is involved in detoxification [Hou04]. It is not yet known whether glucosylation at position 9-N plays a specific role or whether it is merely a byproduct of the 7-N-glucosylation.

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-2901


Brzobohaty93: Brzobohaty B, Moore I, Kristoffersen P, Bako L, Campos N, Schell J, Palme K (1993). "Release of active cytokinin by a beta-glucosidase localized to the maize root meristem." Science 262(5136);1051-4. PMID: 8235622

Hou04: Hou B, Lim EK, Higgins GS, Bowles DJ (2004). "N-glucosylation of cytokinins by glycosyltransferases of Arabidopsis thaliana." J Biol Chem 279(46);47822-32. PMID: 15342621

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Kakimoto01: Kakimoto T (2001). "Identification of plant cytokinin biosynthetic enzymes as dimethylallyl diphosphate:ATP/ADP isopentenyltransferases." Plant Cell Physiol 42(7);677-85. PMID: 11479373

Kasahara04: Kasahara H, Takei K, Ueda N, Hishiyama S, Yamaya T, Kamiya Y, Yamaguchi S, Sakakibara H (2004). "Distinct isoprenoid origins of cis- and trans-zeatin biosyntheses in Arabidopsis." J Biol Chem 279(14);14049-54. PMID: 14726522

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lazarowski03: Lazarowski ER, Shea DA, Boucher RC, Harden TK (2003). "Release of cellular UDP-glucose as a potential extracellular signaling molecule." Mol Pharmacol 63(5);1190-7. PMID: 12695547

Takei04: Takei K, Yamaya T, Sakakibara H (2004). "Arabidopsis CYP735A1 and CYP735A2 encode cytokinin hydroxylases that catalyze the biosynthesis of trans-Zeatin." J Biol Chem 279(40);41866-72. PMID: 15280363

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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