If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → NAD Metabolism → NAD Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Expected Taxonomic Range: Eukaryota
NAD is an ubiquitous molecule that participates in many metabolic reactions. It also plays important roles in transcriptional regulation, longevity, calorie-restriction-mediated life-span extension and age-associated diseases. In yeast, it has been shown that NAD affects longevity and transcriptional silencing through the regulation of the Sir2p family of NAD-dependent deacetylases [Lin03, Lin04].
NAD is synthesised via two major pathways in eukaryotic systems. In the de novo pathway (NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan)), the nicotinic acid moiety of NAD is synthesized from tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway. In yeast, the de novo pathway consists of six enzymatic steps (catalyzed by the products of the BNA genes) and one non-enzymatic reaction.
The two pathways converge at nicotinate nucleotide, and continue along the same path, generating NAD via deamido-NAD.
Subpathways: NAD biosynthesis from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde , L-tryptophan degradation to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde , NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan) , NAD salvage pathway I
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Baecker78: Baecker PA, Yung SG, Rodriguez M, Austin E, Andreoli AJ (1978). "Periplasmic localization of nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1978;133(3);1108-12. PMID: 346557
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Calderone02: Calderone V, Trabucco M, Menin V, Negro A, Zanotti G (2002). "Cloning of human 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase in Escherichia coli: characterisation of the purified enzyme and its in vitro inhibition by Zn2+." Biochim Biophys Acta 1596(2);283-92. PMID: 12007609
Dahmen67: Dahmen W, Webb B, Preiss J (1967). "The deamido-diphosphopyridine nucleotide and diphosphopyridine nucleotide pyrophosphorylases of Escherichia coli and yeast." Arch Biochem Biophys 1967;120(2);440-50. PMID: 4291828
Emanuelli01: Emanuelli M, Carnevali F, Saccucci F, Pierella F, Amici A, Raffaelli N, Magni G (2001). "Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, tissue mRNA levels, bacterial expression, and enzymatic properties of human NMN adenylyltransferase." J Biol Chem 276(1);406-12. PMID: 11027696
Emanuelli99: Emanuelli M, Carnevali F, Lorenzi M, Raffaelli N, Amici A, Ruggieri S, Magni G (1999). "Identification and characterization of YLR328W, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural gene encoding NMN adenylyltransferase. Expression and characterization of the recombinant enzyme." FEBS Lett 455(1-2);13-7. PMID: 10428462
Foster79: Foster JW, Kinney DM, Moat AG (1979). "Pyridine nucleotide cycle of Salmonella typhimurium: isolation and characterization of pncA, pncB, and pncC mutants and utilization of exogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide." J Bacteriol 137(3);1165-75. PMID: 220211
Foster80a: Foster JW, Baskowsky-Foster AM (1980). "Pyridine nucleotide cycle of Salmonella typhimurium: in vivo recycling of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide." J Bacteriol 142(3);1032-5. PMID: 6445894
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