This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amines and Polyamines Biosynthesis → Putrescine Biosynthesis|
The polyamines (the most common of which are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are a group of positively charged organic polycations that are involved in many biological processes, including binding to nucleic acids, stabilizing membranes, and stimulating several enzymes [Tabor85, Abraham68, Frydman92, Huang90a]. While it is clear that polyamines are essential for normal cell growth, we still do not fully understand their specific molecular functions in vivo [Tabor85]. putrescine and spermidine are found in all life forms, and spermine is found mostly in eukaryotes.
putrescine can be formed either directly from L-ornithine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) (see putrescine biosynthesis III) or indirectly from L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) (see putrescine biosynthesis I and putrescine biosynthesis II). While the ODC pathway was considered the only mammalian pathway for polyamine biosynthesis, recently the presence of the ADC pathway in mammals has been demonstrated [Mistry02, Zhu04]. In higher plants the presence of both pathways has been known for some time [Galston90]. In bacteria, both pathways are common, and are often found side by side in the same organism [Tabor85].
About This Pathway
There are two flavors of the ADC pathway. In both cases L-arginine is first converted to agmatine by a biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase. However, in enterobacteria and mycobacteria agmatine is converted directly to putrescine by the enzyme agmatinase (see putrescine biosynthesis I), while in higher plants, Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., and lactic bacteria, agmatine is first hydrolyzed by agmatine deiminase into N-carbamoylputrescine and ammonia, and putrescine is formed by removal of the ureido group from N-carbamoylputrescine by the enzyme N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase.
It should be mentioned that it has been suggested that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway can operate in a catabolic manner [Mercenier80, Cunin86, Nakada01], catalyzing the degradation of L-arginine through putrescine into succinate, supplying the bacteria with carbon and nitrogen (see arginine degradation IV (arginine decarboxylase/agmatine deiminase pathway)). Since the main catabolic arginine pathway in these bacteria is the succinyltransferase pathway (see arginine degradation II (AST pathway)), there is still some debate whether this is a true arginine degradation pathway. However, it is agreed that the last two steps of the pathway are used for catabolic agmatine degradation [Nakada03].
Superpathways: superpathway of polyamine biosynthesis II
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-43
Abraham68: Abraham KA (1968). "Studies on DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli. 1. The mechanism of polyamine induced stimulation of enzyme activity." Eur J Biochem 5(1);143-6. PMID: 4873311
Frydman92: Frydman L, Rossomando PC, Frydman V, Fernandez CO, Frydman B, Samejima K (1992). "Interactions between natural polyamines and tRNA: an 15N NMR analysis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(19);9186-90. PMID: 1409623
Huang90a: Huang SC, Panagiotidis CA, Canellakis ES (1990). "Transcriptional effects of polyamines on ribosomal proteins and on polyamine-synthesizing enzymes in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(9);3464-8. PMID: 2185470
Mistry02: Mistry SK, Burwell TJ, Chambers RM, Rudolph-Owen L, Spaltmann F, Cook WJ, Morris SM (2002). "Cloning of human agmatinase. An alternate path for polyamine synthesis induced in liver by hepatitis B virus." Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282(2);G375-81. PMID: 11804860
Nakada01: Nakada Y, Jiang Y, Nishijyo T, Itoh Y, Lu CD (2001). "Molecular characterization and regulation of the aguBA operon, responsible for agmatine utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1." J Bacteriol 183(22);6517-24. PMID: 11673419
Nakada03: Nakada Y, Itoh Y (2003). "Identification of the putrescine biosynthetic genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterization of agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase of the arginine decarboxylase pathway." Microbiology 149(Pt 3);707-14. PMID: 12634339
Andrell09: Andrell J, Hicks MG, Palmer T, Carpenter EP, Iwata S, Maher MJ (2009). "Crystal structure of the acid-induced arginine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli: reversible decamer assembly controls enzyme activity." Biochemistry 48(18);3915-27. PMID: 19298070
Bell90: Bell E, Malmberg RL (1990). "Analysis of a cDNA encoding arginine decarboxylase from oat reveals similarity to the Escherichia coli arginine decarboxylase and evidence of protein processing." Mol Gen Genet 224(3);431-6. PMID: 2266946
Bitonti87: Bitonti AJ, Casara PJ, McCann PP, Bey P (1987). "Catalytic irreversible inhibition of bacterial and plant arginine decarboxylase activities by novel substrate and product analogues." Biochem J 1987;242(1);69-74. PMID: 3297044
Blethen68: Blethen SL, Boeker EA, Snell EE (1968). "Argenine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli. I. Purification and specificity for substrates and coenzyme." J Biol Chem 1968;243(8);1671-7. PMID: 4870599
Forouhar10: Forouhar F, Lew S, Seetharaman J, Xiao R, Acton TB, Montelione GT, Tong L (2010). "Structures of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylases." Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 66(Pt 12);1562-6. PMID: 21139196
Hanfrey11: Hanfrey CC, Pearson BM, Hazeldine S, Lee J, Gaskin DJ, Woster PM, Phillips MA, Michael AJ (2011). "Alternative spermidine biosynthetic route is critical for growth of Campylobacter jejuni and is the dominant polyamine pathway in human gut microbiota." J Biol Chem 286(50);43301-12. PMID: 22025614
Janowitz03: Janowitz T, Kneifel H, Piotrowski M (2003). "Identification and characterization of plant agmatine iminohydrolase, the last missing link in polyamine biosynthesis of plants." FEBS Lett 544(1-3);258-61. PMID: 12782327
Mo02: Mo H, Pua EC (2002). "Up-regulation of arginine decarboxylase gene expression and accumulation of polyamines in mustard (Brassica juncea)in response to stress." Physiol Plant 114(3);439-449. PMID: 12060267
PerezAmador95: Perez-Amador MA, Carbonell J, Granell A (1995). "Expression of arginine decarboxylase is induced during early fruit development and in young tissues of Pisum sativum (L.)." Plant Mol Biol 28(6);997-1009. PMID: 7548836
Piotrowski03: Piotrowski M, Janowitz T, Kneifel H (2003). "Plant C-N hydrolases and the identification of a plant N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase involved in polyamine biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 278(3);1708-12. PMID: 12435743
Rastogi93: Rastogi R, Dulson J, Rothstein SJ (1993). "Cloning of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) arginine decarboxylase gene and its expression during fruit ripening." Plant Physiol 103(3);829-34. PMID: 8022938
Sabo74a: Sabo DL, Fischer EH (1974). "Chemical properties of Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylase including a segment of its pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site." Biochemistry 13(4);670-6. PMID: 4204273
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