MetaCyc Pathway: L-proline biosynthesis II (from arginine)
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-proline biosynthesis II (from arginine)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-proline Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Tetrahymena pyriformis

Expected Taxonomic Range: Eukaryota

This proline biosynthetic pathway was described in Tetrahymena pyriformis [Hill67]. In this pathway, proline is formed from arginine through the intermediates L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and L-glutamate-5-semialdehyde. All the enzymes participating in the pathway have been purified and partially characterized by the authors.

The enzyme catalyzing the step leading from citrulline to ornithine was described as citrulline hydrolase, or citrullinase, and subsequently given the EC number The action of this enzyme was described as "the reverse of the ornithine transcarbamylase reaction". More recent knowledge about citrulline metabolism, though, suggests that it was possible that the enzyme catalyzing this step was indeed ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) (EC number, as two forms of this enzyme are known: an anabolic form, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine to citrulline, and a catabolic form, which catalyzes the conversion of citrulline to ornithine [Baur87]. Thus it is possible that the enzyme described was a catabolic form of OTC. We have decided to include both of the enzymes in this pathway until further research is conducted.

Variants: L-arginine degradation VI (arginase 2 pathway), L-ornithine degradation I (L-proline biosynthesis), L-proline biosynthesis I, L-proline biosynthesis III, L-proline biosynthesis IV

Created 28-Sep-2005 by Caspi R, SRI International


Baur87: Baur H, Stalon V, Falmagne P, Luethi E, Haas D (1987). "Primary and quaternary structure of the catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extensive sequence homology with the anabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferases of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 166(1);111-7. PMID: 3109911

Hill67: Hill DL, Chambers P (1967). "The biosynthesis of proline by Tetrahymena pyriformis." Biochim Biophys Acta 148(2);435-47. PMID: 6075416

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Bairoch93a: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Baur90: Baur H, Tricot C, Stalon V, Haas D (1990). "Converting catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase to an anabolic enzyme." J Biol Chem 265(25);14728-31. PMID: 2118516

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

BSUB93: "Bacillus subtilis and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Genetics." (1993). Editors: Sonenshein, A.L., Hoch, J.A., Losick, R. American Society For Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Canas08: Canas RA, Villalobos DP, Diaz-Moreno SM, Canovas FM, Canton FR (2008). "Molecular and functional analyses support a role of Ornithine-{delta}-aminotransferase in the provision of glutamate for glutamine biosynthesis during pine germination." Plant Physiol 148(1);77-88. PMID: 18621980

Chen05a: Chen L, Brugger K, Skovgaard M, Redder P, She Q, Torarinsson E, Greve B, Awayez M, Zibat A, Klenk HP, Garrett RA (2005). "The genome of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a model organism of the Crenarchaeota." J Bacteriol 187(14);4992-9. PMID: 15995215

Delauney93: Delauney AJ, Hu CA, Kishor PB, Verma DP (1993). "Cloning of ornithine delta-aminotransferase cDNA from Vigna aconitifolia by trans-complementation in Escherichia coli and regulation of proline biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 268(25);18673-8. PMID: 8103048

Deutch01: Deutch CE, Klarstrom JL, Link CL, Ricciardi DL (2001). "Oxidation of L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase in Escherichia coli." Curr Microbiol 42(6);442-6. PMID: 11381339

Deutch82: Deutch AH, Smith CJ, Rushlow KE, Kretschmer PJ (1982). "Escherichia coli delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase: gene sequence, protein overproduction and purification." Nucleic Acids Res 1982;10(23);7701-14. PMID: 6296787

Funck08: Funck D, Stadelhofer B, Koch W (2008). "Ornithine-delta-aminotransferase is essential for arginine catabolism but not for proline biosynthesis." BMC Plant Biol 8;40. PMID: 18419821

Gardan95: Gardan R, Rapoport G, Debarbouille M (1995). "Expression of the rocDEF operon involved in arginine catabolism in Bacillus subtilis." J Mol Biol 1995;249(5);843-56. PMID: 7540694

Gardan97: Gardan R, Rapoport G, Debarbouille M (1997). "Role of the transcriptional activator RocR in the arginine-degradation pathway of Bacillus subtilis." Mol Microbiol 1997;24(4);825-37. PMID: 9194709

Goodyear04: Goodyear CS, Silverman GJ (2004). "Staphylococcal toxin induced preferential and prolonged in vivo deletion of innate-like B lymphocytes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(31);11392-7. PMID: 15273292

Hata86: Hata A, Tsuzuki T, Shimada K, Takiguchi M, Mori M, Matsuda I (1986). "Isolation and characterization of the human ornithine transcarbamylase gene: structure of the 5'-end region." J Biochem (Tokyo) 100(3);717-25. PMID: 3782067

Himmelreich96: Himmelreich R, Hilbert H, Plagens H, Pirkl E, Li BC, Herrmann R (1996). "Complete sequence analysis of the genome of the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae." Nucleic Acids Res 1996;24(22);4420-49. PMID: 8948633

Issaly74: Issaly IM, Issaly AS (1974). "Control of ornithine carbamoyltransferase activityby arginase in Bacillus subtilis." Eur J Biochem 1974;49(3);485-95. PMID: 4216455

Kenklies99: Kenklies J, Ziehn R, Fritsche K, Pich A, Andreesen JR (1999). "Proline biosynthesis from L-ornithine in Clostridium sticklandii: purification of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, and sequence and expression of the encoding gene, proC." Microbiology 1999;145 ( Pt 4);819-26. PMID: 10220161

Knodler98: Knodler LA, Sekyere EO, Stewart TS, Schofield PJ, Edwards MR (1998). "Cloning and expression of a prokaryotic enzyme, arginine deiminase, from a primitive eukaryote Giardia intestinalis." J Biol Chem 273(8);4470-7. PMID: 9468500

Krueger86: Krueger, Rolf, Jager, Hans-jurgen, Hintz, Martin, Pahlich, Edwin "Purification to homogeneity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from barley." Plant Physiology (1986), vol 80, 142-144.

Kuo82: Kuo LC, Lipscomb WN, Kantrowitz ER (1982). "Zn(II)-induced cooperativity of Escherichia coli ornithine transcarbamoylase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1982;79(7);2250-4. PMID: 7048313

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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