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MetaCyc Pathway: purine nucleotides degradation I (plants)
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: purine nucleotides degradation I (plants)

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: purine nucleotide catabolism (aerobic)

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationNucleosides and Nucleotides DegradationPurine Nucleotides Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Camellia sinensis, Catharanthus roseus, Glycine max, Lupinus luteus, Solanum tuberosum

Expected Taxonomic Range: Embryophyta

In most plants, purine nucleotides are completely degraded to CO2 and ammonia via the ureides (S)-(+)-allantoin and allantoate. This degradation proceeds via the intermediates xanthine and urate.

The initial step of AMP degradation is the conversion of AMP to IMP, which is converted to xanthine in two alternative routes, via xanthosine or hypoxanthine. The initial step of GMP degradation is the conversion of GMP to guanosine, which is also degraded to xanthine in two ways, via guanine or xanthosine.

Studies in tea leaves and cultured Catharanthus roseus cells showed that guanosine deaminase activity was much higher than that of guanine deaminase [Ashihara97]. It indicates the degradation pathway of GMP via xanthosine is likely to be the major route. Xanthine is then converted to urate by xanthine dehydrogenase [Hesberg04].

The product of this pathway, urate, is converted to to (S)-(+)-allantoin as described in urate degradation to allantoin I.

The plant pathway is very similar to that found in mammals. However, mammals do not have the enzyme guanosine deaminase (EC [Roberts03] (see purine nucleotides degradation II (aerobic)).

Citations: [Moffatt02, CapoteMainez97]

Superpathways: superpathway of purines degradation in plants

Subpathways: guanosine nucleotides degradation I, guanosine nucleotides degradation II, superpathway of guanosine nucleotides degradation (plants), adenosine nucleotides degradation I

Variants: pseudouridine degradation, purine deoxyribonucleosides degradation I, purine deoxyribonucleosides degradation II, purine nucleobases degradation I (anaerobic), purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic), purine nucleotides degradation II (aerobic), purine ribonucleosides degradation, urate biosynthesis/inosine 5'-phosphate degradation

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5044


Ashihara97: Ashihara, Hiroshi, Takasawa, Yoko, Suzuki, Takeo (1997). "Metabolism fate of guanosine in higher plants." Physiologia Plantarum 100:909-916.

CapoteMainez97: Capote-Mainez N, Sanchez F (1997). "Characterization of the common bean uricase II and its expression in organs other than nodules." Plant Physiol 115(4);1307-17. PMID: 9414545

Hesberg04: Hesberg C, Hansch R, Mendel RR, Bittner F (2004). "Tandem orientation of duplicated xanthine dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana: differential gene expression and enzyme activities." J Biol Chem 279(14);13547-54. PMID: 14726515

Moffatt02: Moffatt, Barbara, Ashihara, Hiroshi (2002). "Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and metabolism." The Arabidopsis Book, published by the American Society of Plant Biologists.

Roberts03: Roberts EL (2003). "Guanosine deaminase in human serum and tissue extracts--a reappraisal of the products." Br J Biomed Sci 60(4);197-203. PMID: 14725335

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Amaya02: Amaya Y, Kawamoto S, Kashima Y, Okamoto K, Nishino T (2002). "Purification and characterization of multiple forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase expressed in baculovirus-insect cell system." J Biochem 132(4);597-606. PMID: 12359075

Asai07: Asai R, Matsumura T, Okamoto K, Igarashi K, Pai EF, Nishino T (2007). "Two mutations convert mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase to highly superoxide-productive xanthine oxidase." J Biochem 141(4);525-34. PMID: 17301076

BauschJurken95: Bausch-Jurken MT, Sabina RL (1995). "Divergent N-terminal regions in AMP deaminase and isoform-specific catalytic properties of the enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 321(2);372-80. PMID: 7646062

Bideon75: Bideon GM (1975). "Purification and characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-regulated 5'-nucleotidase from potatoe." Biochim Biophys Acta 384(2);443-57. PMID: 235999

Bradshaw60: Bradshaw, W.H., Barker, H.A. (1960). "Purification and properties of xanthine dehydrogenase from Clostridium cylindrosporum." J. Biol. Chem. 235(12): 3620-3629.

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Cao01: Cao Y, Schubert KR (2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding soybean nodule IMP dehydrogenase." Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1520(3);242-6. PMID: 11566360

Carpani90: Carpani G, Racchi M, Ghezzi P, Terao M, Garattini E (1990). "Purification and characterization of mouse liver xanthine oxidase." Arch Biochem Biophys 279(2);237-41. PMID: 2350174

Collart88: Collart FR, Huberman E (1988). "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human and Chinese hamster inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase cDNAs." J Biol Chem 263(30);15769-72. PMID: 2902093

Dutka04: Dutka P, Szydlowska M, Chodorowski Z, Rybakowska I, Nagel-Starczynowska G, Kaletha K (2004). "AMP-deaminase from normal and cirrhotic human liver: a comparative study." Mol Cell Biochem 262(1-2);119-26. PMID: 15532716

Elshafei95: Elshafei AM, Abu-Shady MR, el-Beih FM, Mohamed LA (1995). "Mode and extent of degradation of adenosine and guanosine by extracts of Aspergillus terricola." Microbiol Res 150(3);291-5. PMID: 7551735

Gilbert79: Gilbert HJ, Lowe CR, Drabble WT (1979). "Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Purification by affinity chromatography, subunit structure and inhibition by guanosine 5'-monophosphate." Biochem J 1979;183(3);481-94. PMID: 44191

Gupta85: Gupta NK, Glantz MD (1985). "Isolation and characterization of human liver guanine deaminase." Arch Biochem Biophys 236(1);266-76. PMID: 3966794

Guranowski82: Guranowski, Andrzej (1982). "Purine catabolism in plants, purification and some properties of inosine nucleosidase from yellow lupin seeds." Plant Physiology 70:344-349.

Hager95: Hager PW, Collart FR, Huberman E, Mitchell BS (1995). "Recombinant human inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type I and type II proteins. Purification and characterization of inhibitor binding." Biochem Pharmacol 49(9);1323-9. PMID: 7763314

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Ito90: Ito S, Iwasaki A, Mizobuchi M, Matsuda Y (1990). "Purification of human liver guanase and characterization of antibody against it by immunoblotting." Clin Biochem 23(2);113-20. PMID: 2372926

Itoh03: Itoh R, Saint-Marc C, Chaignepain S, Katahira R, Schmitter JM, Daignan-Fornier B (2003). "The yeast ISN1 (YOR155c) gene encodes a new type of IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase." BMC Biochem 4;4. PMID: 12735798

Itoh94: Itoh R (1994). "Purification and some properties of an IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase from yeast." Biochem J 298 Pt 3;593-8. PMID: 8141771

Jung09: Jung B, Florchinger M, Kunz HH, Traub M, Wartenberg R, Jeblick W, Neuhaus HE, Mohlmann T (2009). "Uridine-ribohydrolase is a key regulator in the uridine degradation pathway of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 21(3);876-91. PMID: 19293370

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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