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MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of gibberellin GA12 biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: superpathway of gibberellin GA12 biosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisHormones BiosynthesisPlant Hormones BiosynthesisGibberellins and Gibberellin Precursors Biosynthesis
BiosynthesisSecondary Metabolites BiosynthesisTerpenoids BiosynthesisDiterpenoids BiosynthesisGibberellins and Gibberellin Precursors Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Cucurbita maxima, Fusarium fujikuroi, Hevea brasiliensis, Oryza sativa, Phaseolus coccineus, Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea, Triticum aestivum

Expected Taxonomic Range: Acetobacter, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Bacillus , Fusarium fujikuroi, Phaeosphaeria, Rhizobium phaseoli, Sphaceloma, Streptophytina

This super-pathway provides a global view of the biosynthesis of gibberellin A12, the first gibberellin A, from geranylgeranyl diphosphate. More information concerning the intermediate step of this super-pathway is available: ent-kaurene biosynthesis I and GA12 biosynthesis.

Superpathways: superpathway of gibberellin biosynthesis

Subpathways: GA12 biosynthesis, ent-kaurene biosynthesis I

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5053, PlantCyc:PWY-5053


Sponsel04: Sponsel V.M., Hedden P. (2004). "Gibberellin biosynthesis and inactivation." Plant Hormones. Biosynthesis, Signal transduction, Action! Kluwer Academic Publishers, Ed. P.J. Davies.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Cho04a: Cho EM, Okada A, Kenmoku H, Otomo K, Toyomasu T, Mitsuhashi W, Sassa T, Yajima A, Yabuta G, Mori K, Oikawa H, Toshima H, Shibuya N, Nojiri H, Omori T, Nishiyama M, Yamane H (2004). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding ent-cassa-12,15-diene synthase, a putative diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthetic enzyme, from suspension-cultured rice cells treated with a chitin elicitor." Plant J 37(1);1-8. PMID: 14675427

Davidson03: Davidson SE, Elliott RC, Helliwell CA, Poole AT, Reid JB (2003). "The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase." Plant Physiol 131(1);335-44. PMID: 12529541

Davidson04: Davidson SE, Smith JJ, Helliwell CA, Poole AT, Reid JB (2004). "The pea gene LH encodes ent-kaurene oxidase." Plant Physiol 134(3);1123-34. PMID: 14988475

Fleet03: Fleet CM, Yamaguchi S, Hanada A, Kawaide H, David CJ, Kamiya Y, Sun TP (2003). "Overexpression of AtCPS and AtKS in Arabidopsis confers increased ent-kaurene production but no increase in bioactive gibberellins." Plant Physiol 132(2);830-9. PMID: 12805613

Harris05: Harris LJ, Saparno A, Johnston A, Prisic S, Xu M, Allard S, Kathiresan A, Ouellet T, Peters RJ (2005). "The maize An2 gene is induced by Fusarium attack and encodes an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase." Plant Mol Biol 59(6);881-94. PMID: 16307364

Hayashi06: Hayashi K, Kawaide H, Notomi M, Sakigi Y, Matsuo A, Nozaki H (2006). "Identification and functional analysis of bifunctional ent-kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens." FEBS Lett 580(26);6175-81. PMID: 17064690

Helliwell01: Helliwell CA, Chandler PM, Poole A, Dennis ES, Peacock WJ (2001). "The CYP88A cytochrome P450, ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase, catalyzes three steps of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(4);2065-70. PMID: 11172076

Helliwell01a: Helliwell CA, Sullivan JA, Mould RM, Gray JC, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (2001). "A plastid envelope location of Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase links the plastid and endoplasmic reticulum steps of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway." Plant J 28(2);201-8. PMID: 11722763

Helliwell98: Helliwell CA, Sheldon CC, Olive MR, Walker AR, Zeevaart JA, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (1998). "Cloning of the Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase gene GA3." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998;95(15);9019-24. PMID: 9671797

Helliwell99: Helliwell CA, Poole A, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (1999). "Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase catalyzes three steps of gibberellin biosynthesis." Plant Physiol 1999;119(2);507-10. PMID: 9952446

Karp04: Karp PD (2004). "Call for an enzyme genomics initiative." Genome Biol 5(8);401. PMID: 15287973

Kawaide00: Kawaide H, Sassa T, Kamiya Y (2000). "Functional analysis of the two interacting cyclase domains in ent-kaurene synthase from the fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. L487 and a comparison with cyclases from higher plants." J Biol Chem 275(4);2276-80. PMID: 10644675

Kawaide97: Kawaide H, Imai R, Sassa T, Kamiya Y (1997). "Ent-kaurene synthase from the fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. L487. cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a bifunctional diterpene cyclase in fungal gibberellin biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 272(35);21706-12. PMID: 9268298

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Morrone10: Morrone D, Chen X, Coates RM, Peters RJ (2010). "Characterization of the kaurene oxidase CYP701A3, a multifunctional cytochrome P450 from gibberellin biosynthesis." Biochem J 431(3);337-44. PMID: 20698828

Nemoto04: Nemoto T, Cho EM, Okada A, Okada K, Otomo K, Kanno Y, Toyomasu T, Mitsuhashi W, Sassa T, Minami E, Shibuya N, Nishiyama M, Nojiri H, Yamane H (2004). "Stemar-13-ene synthase, a diterpene cyclase involved in the biosynthesis of the phytoalexin oryzalexin S in rice." FEBS Lett 571(1-3);182-6. PMID: 15280039

Otomo04a: Otomo K, Kenmoku H, Oikawa H, Konig WA, Toshima H, Mitsuhashi W, Yamane H, Sassa T, Toyomasu T (2004). "Biological functions of ent- and syn-copalyl diphosphate synthases in rice: key enzymes for the branch point of gibberellin and phytoalexin biosynthesis." Plant J 39(6);886-93. PMID: 15341631

Prisic04: Prisic S, Xu M, Wilderman PR, Peters RJ (2004). "Rice contains two disparate ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases with distinct metabolic functions." Plant Physiol 136(4);4228-36. PMID: 15542489

Rojas01: Rojas MC, Hedden P, Gaskin P, Tudzynski B (2001). "The P450-1 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes a multifunctional enzyme in gibberellin biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(10);5838-43. PMID: 11320210

Rojas04: Rojas MC, Urrutia O, Cruz C, Gaskin P, Tudzynski B, Hedden P (2004). "Kaurenolides and fujenoic acids are side products of the gibberellin P450-1 monooxygenase in Gibberella fujikuroi." Phytochemistry 65(7);821-30. PMID: 15081281

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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