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MetaCyc Pathway: UDP-sugars interconversion

Pathway diagram: UDP-sugars interconversion

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Activation/Inactivation/InterconversionInterconversions
BiosynthesisCarbohydrates BiosynthesisSugars BiosynthesisSugar Nucleotides BiosynthesisUDP-sugar Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Glycine max, Nicotiana tabacum, Petroselinum crispum, Triticum aestivum, Vicia faba

Expected Taxonomic Range: Embryophyta

This super-pathway shows the interconnectivity of UDP-sugars in plants. For additional details on the various sugars, see the individual subpathways.

Subpathways: UDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis, UDP-L-arabinose biosynthesis I (from UDP-xylose), UDP-D-xylose biosynthesis, UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I (from UDP-D-glucuronate), UDP-D-apiose biosynthesis (from UDP-D-glucuronate), UDP-D-galactose biosynthesis, UDP-α-D-glucuronate biosynthesis (from UDP-glucose)

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5114

Revised 15-Aug-2013 by Caspi R, SRI International

References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arabshahi88: Arabshahi A, Flentke GR, Frey PA (1988). "Uridine diphosphate galactose 4-epimerase. pH dependence of the reduction of NAD+ by a substrate analog." J Biol Chem 263(6);2638-43. PMID: 3277958

Arrecubieta94: Arrecubieta C, Lopez R, Garcia E (1994). "Molecular characterization of cap3A, a gene from the operon required for the synthesis of the capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3: sequencing of mutations responsible for the unencapsulated phenotype and localization of the capsular cluster on the pneumococcal chromosome." J Bacteriol 176(20);6375-83. PMID: 7929009

Barber06: Barber C, Rosti J, Rawat A, Findlay K, Roberts K, Seifert GJ (2006). "Distinct properties of the five UDP-D-glucose/UDP-D-galactose 4-epimerase isoforms of arabidopsis thaliana." J Biol Chem. PMID: 16644739

Barber61: Barber GA, Neufeld EF (1961). "Rhamnosyl transfer from TDPL-rhamnose catalyzed by a plant enzyme." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 6;44-8. PMID: 13864832

Baron72: Baron D, Wellmann E, Grisebach H (1972). "Purification and properties of an enzyme from cell suspension cultures of parsley catalyzing the synthesis of UDP-apiose and UDP-D-xylose from UDP-D-glucuronic acid." Biochim Biophys Acta 258(1);310-8. PMID: 4333589

BarPeled91: Bar-Peled M, Lewinsohn E, Fluhr R, Gressel J (1991). "UDP-rhamnose:flavanone-7-O-glucoside-2''-O-rhamnosyltransferase. Purification and characterization of an enzyme catalyzing the production of bitter compounds in citrus." J Biol Chem 266(31);20953-9. PMID: 1939145

Beam77: Beam KG, Nestler EJ, Greengard P (1977). "Increased cyclic GMP levels associated with contraction in muscle fibres of the giant barnacle." Nature 267(5611);534-6. PMID: 195221

Berger01: Berger E, Arabshahi A, Wei Y, Schilling JF, Frey PA (2001). "Acid-base catalysis by UDP-galactose 4-epimerase: correlations of kinetically measured acid dissociation constants with thermodynamic values for tyrosine 149." Biochemistry 40(22);6699-705. PMID: 11380265

Bindschedler05: Bindschedler LV, Wheatley E, Gay E, Cole J, Cottage A, Bolwell GP (2005). "Characterisation and expression of the pathway from UDP-glucose to UDP-xylose in differentiating tobacco tissue." Plant Mol Biol 57(2);285-301. PMID: 15821883

Blackburn76: Blackburn P, Ferdinand W (1976). "The concerted inactivation of Escherichia coli uridine diphosphate galactose 4-epimerase by sugar nucleotide together with a free sugar." Biochem J 155(2);225-9. PMID: 779771

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Brett90: Brett C., Wladron K. "Physiology and biochemistry of plant cell walls." Topics in plant physiology, vol2. M. Black, J. Chapman (Eds.) 1990, pp. 4-57.

Burget03: Burget EG, Verma R, Molhoj M, Reiter WD (2003). "The biosynthesis of L-arabinose in plants: molecular cloning and characterization of a Golgi-localized UDP-D-xylose 4-epimerase encoded by the MUR4 gene of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 15(2);523-31. PMID: 12566589

Burget99: Burget EG, Reiter WD (1999). "The mur4 mutant of Arabidopsis is partially defective in the de novo synthesis of uridine diphospho L-arabinose." Plant Physiol 121(2);383-9. PMID: 10517829

Burke93: Burke JR, Frey PA (1993). "The importance of binding energy in catalysis of hydride transfer by UDP-galactose 4-epimerase: a 13C and 15N NMR and kinetic study." Biochemistry 1993;32(48);13220-30. PMID: 8241177

Dalessandro77: Dalessandro G, Northcote DH (1977). "Changes in enzymic activities of nucleoside diphosphate sugar interconversions during differentiation of cambium to xylem in sycamore and poplar." Biochem J 162(2);267-79. PMID: 192218

Dalessandro77a: Dalessandro G, Northcote DH (1977). "Changes in enzymic activities of nucleoside diphosphate sugar interconversions during differentiation of cambium to xylem in pine and fir." Biochem J 162(2);281-8. PMID: 192219

Dalrymple13: Dalrymple SA, Ko J, Sheoran I, Kaminskyj SG, Sanders DA (2013). "Elucidation of substrate specificity in Aspergillus nidulans UDP-galactose-4-epimerase." PLoS One 8(10);e76803. PMID: 24116166

Darvill: Darvill A.G., Albersheim P., Delmer D.P. "The primary cell walls of flowering plants." In: NE Tobert, ed., The Biochemistry of Plants: A comprehensive treatise, Vol 1., Academic Press, New York, pp 92-162.

Dey84: Dey P.M. (1984). "UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Vicia faba seeds." Phytochemistry 23:729-732.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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