If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: GGPP biosynthesis II (plastidic)
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → Polyprenyl Biosynthesis → Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Biosynthesis|
|Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Terpenoids Biosynthesis → Diterpenoids Biosynthesis|
geranylgeranyl diphosphate (also known as geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, or GGPP) is a crucial compound involved in the biosynthesis of a variety of terpenes and terpenoids, including central compounds such as ubiquinones and menaquinones.
In plants, geranylgeranyl diphosphate is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of essentail compounds such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinones, and gibberellins [RodriguezConcep02], as well as a variety of secondary metabolites.
In addition, GGPP is also used in posttranslational modifications of proteins (geranylgeranylation) which is important for membrane adhesion as well as the function of some proteins [Caldelari01, Johnson05].
GGPP is synthesized from (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate either by dedicated enzymes, such as the farnesyltranstransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or by the action of polyprenyl transferases such as the solanesyl diphosphate synthase from Rhodobacter capsulatus or octaprenyl diphosphate synthase from Escherichia coli K-12. It should be noted that the building blocks for (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are synthesized in different organisms by different pathways. While most eukaryotes and some bacteria use the mevalonate pathway I, most bacteria, as well as green algae utilize the methylerythritol phosphate pathway I (as described in the two superpathways superpathway of geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis I (via mevalonate) and superpathway of geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis II (via MEP)).
This superpathway describes the production of GGPP via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway I.
In plants, plastidic GGPP is a central metabolite, involved in the biosythesis of a variety of compounds (see list given above).
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5121
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