This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: GPP biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → Polyprenyl Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col , Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 , Hevea brasiliensis , Mentha x piperita , Methanothermobacter marburgensis Marburg , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
geranyl diphosphate (geranyl pyrophosphate, GPP) is the universal precursor of several classes of compounds, including the monoterpenes, a diverse group of compounds crucial for numerous biological roles. In plants monoterpenes are involved in defence against herbivores and pathogens, allelopathic interactions and pollination.
Monoterpenes are also amongst the most important constituents of flavorings and fragrances for human consumption and can serve as therapeutic agents in human medicine (for review see [Bouvier00]). GPP is produced by geranyl pyrophosphate synthases which catalyze the condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate (isopentenyl pyrophosphate, IPP) with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) following a head-to-tail mechanism.
In plants GPP is synthesized in plastids; IPP and DMAPP originate from the methylerythritol phosphate pathway I.
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5122
Bouvier00: Bouvier F, Suire C, d'Harlingue A, Backhaus RA, Camara B (2000). "Molecular cloning of geranyl diphosphate synthase and compartmentation of monoterpene synthesis in plant cells." Plant J 24(2);241-52. PMID: 11069698
Burke04: Burke C, Klettke K, Croteau R (2004). "Heteromeric geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint: construction of a functional fusion protein and inhibition by bisphosphonate substrate analogs." Arch Biochem Biophys 422(1);52-60. PMID: 14725857
Burke99: Burke CC, Wildung MR, Croteau R (1999). "Geranyl diphosphate synthase: cloning, expression, and characterization of this prenyltransferase as a heterodimer." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(23);13062-7. PMID: 10557273
Anderson89: Anderson MS, Yarger JG, Burck CL, Poulter CD (1989). "Farnesyl diphosphate synthetase. Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of an essential gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 1989;264(32);19176-84. PMID: 2681213
Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554
Blanchard93: Blanchard L, Karst F (1993). "Characterization of a lysine-to-glutamic acid mutation in a conservative sequence of farnesyl diphosphate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Gene 125(2);185-9. PMID: 8096487
Burke02: Burke C, Croteau R (2002). "Interaction with the small subunit of geranyl diphosphate synthase modifies the chain length specificity of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase to produce geranyl diphosphate." J Biol Chem 277(5);3141-9. PMID: 11733504
Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043
Chen93: Chen A, Poulter CD (1993). "Purification and characterization of farnesyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. A thermostable bifunctional enzyme from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum." J Biol Chem 268(15);11002-7. PMID: 8388380
Chen94a: Chen A, Poulter CD (1994). "Isolation and characterization of idsA: the gene for the short chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum." Arch Biochem Biophys 314(2);399-404. PMID: 7979381
Cunillera96: Cunillera N, Arro M, Delourme D, Karst F, Boronat A, Ferrer A (1996). "Arabidopsis thaliana contains two differentially expressed farnesyl-diphosphate synthase genes." J Biol Chem 271(13);7774-80. PMID: 8631820
Delourme94: Delourme D, Lacroute F, Karst F (1994). "Cloning of an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA coding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase by functional complementation in yeast." Plant Mol Biol 26(6);1867-73. PMID: 7858223
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Dogbo87: Dogbo, O., Camara, B. (1987). "Purification of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Capsicum chromoplasts by affinity chromatography." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism 920(2):140-148.
Fujisaki05: Fujisaki S, Takahashi I, Hara H, Horiuchi K, Nishino T, Nishimura Y (2005). "Disruption of the structural gene for farnesyl diphosphate synthase in Escherichia coli." J Biochem (Tokyo) 137(3);395-400. PMID: 15809342
Fujisaki86: Fujisaki S, Nishino T, Katsuki H (1986). "Isoprenoid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Separation and partial purification of four enzymes involved in the synthesis." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1986;99(5);1327-37. PMID: 3519603
Fujisaki89: Fujisaki S, Nishino T, Katsuki H, Hara H, Nishimura Y, Hirota Y (1989). "Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant having temperature-sensitive farnesyl diphosphate synthase." J Bacteriol 1989;171(10);5654-8. PMID: 2676985
Fujisaki90: Fujisaki S, Hara H, Nishimura Y, Horiuchi K, Nishino T (1990). "Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the ispA gene responsible for farnesyl diphosphate synthase activity in Escherichia coli." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1990;108(6);995-1000. PMID: 2089044
Gilg05: Gilg AB, Bearfield JC, Tittiger C, Welch WH, Blomquist GJ (2005). "Isolation and functional expression of an animal geranyl diphosphate synthase and its role in bark beetle pheromone biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(28);9760-5. PMID: 15983375
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