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MetaCyc Pathway: cardiolipin biosynthesis II

Enzyme View:

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Fatty Acids and Lipids Biosynthesis Phospholipid Biosynthesis Cardiolipin Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Arabidopsis thaliana col , Homo sapiens , Vigna radiata radiata

Expected Taxonomic Range: Eukaryota

Summary:
a cardiolipin is an anionic membrane phospholipid. Along with phosphatidylglycerol, the anionic lipids are important for the biogenesis and function of membranes. Cardiolipin is present in the plasma membrane of bacteria and in the mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes.

A main difference exists between bacterial and eukaryotic cardiolipin biosynthesis; In bacteria cardiolipin is formed by the condensation of two molecules of an L-1-phosphatidyl-glycerol, while in eukaryotes it is formed from one molecule of a CDP-diacylglycerol and one molecule of an L-1-phosphatidyl-glycerol.

In all eukaryotes, cardiolipin biosynthesis occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane [Nowicki05]. In mung bean mitochondria, the phosphatidylglycerolphosphate phosphatase activity is much higher than the phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase activity, resulting in a quick turn over of phosphatidylglycerolphosphate to phosphatidylglycerol [Griebau94]. In fact, phosphatidylglycerolphosphate is not detected in mitochondrial membranes of mung beans.

It is noteworthy that, in addition to being synthesized in mitochondria, phosphatidylglycerol may also be imported from the endoplasmic reticulum to serve as the cardiolipin precursor [Babiychuk03].

The reaction catalyzed by phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase is the rate-limiting step of cardiolipin biosynthesis.

Citations: [Muller01]

Variants: cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis (Xanthomonas) , cardiolipin biosynthesis I , cardiolipin biosynthesis III

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-5269

Credits:
Created 12-Jul-2006 by Zhang P , TAIR
Revised 09-Oct-2007 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Babiychuk03: Babiychuk E, Muller F, Eubel H, Braun HP, Frentzen M, Kushnir S (2003). "Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function." Plant J 33(5);899-909. PMID: 12609031

Griebau94: Griebau R, Frentzen M (1994). "Biosynthesis of Phosphatidylglycerol in Isolated Mitochondria of Etiolated Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings." Plant Physiol 105(4);1269-1274. PMID: 12232283

Muller01: Muller F, Frentzen M (2001). "Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana." FEBS Lett 509(2);298-302. PMID: 11741606

Nowicki05: Nowicki M, Muller F, Frentzen M (2005). "Cardiolipin synthase of Arabidopsis thaliana." FEBS Lett 579(10);2161-5. PMID: 15811335

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Adams92: Adams MD, Dubnick M, Kerlavage AR, Moreno R, Kelley JM, Utterback TR, Nagle JW, Fields C, Venter JC (1992). "Sequence identification of 2,375 human brain genes." Nature 355(6361);632-4. PMID: 1538749

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Chang67a: Chang YY, Kennedy EP (1967). "Phosphatidyl glycerophosphate phosphatase." J Lipid Res 8(5);456-62. PMID: 4292860

Dowhan92: Dowhan W (1992). "Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1992;209;313-21. PMID: 1323047

Dowhan92a: Dowhan W, Funk CR (1992). "Phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 209;224-30. PMID: 1323035

Funk92a: Funk CR, Zimniak L, Dowhan W (1992). "The pgpA and pgpB genes of Escherichia coli are not essential: evidence for a third phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase." J Bacteriol 1992;174(1);205-13. PMID: 1309518

Gopalakrishnan86: Gopalakrishnan AS, Chen YC, Temkin M, Dowhan W (1986). "Structure and expression of the gene locus encoding the phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1986;261(3);1329-38. PMID: 3003065

Hirabayashi76: Hirabayashi T, Larson TJ, Dowhan W (1976). "Membrane-associated phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli: purification by substrate affinity chromatography on cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol sepharose." Biochemistry 1976;15(24);5205-11. PMID: 793612

Icho83: Icho T, Raetz CR (1983). "Multiple genes for membrane-bound phosphatases in Escherichia coli and their action on phospholipid precursors." J Bacteriol 153(2);722-30. PMID: 6296050

Icho88: Icho T (1988). "Membrane-bound phosphatases in Escherichia coli: sequence of the pgpB gene and dual subcellular localization of the pgpB product." J Bacteriol 1988;170(11);5117-24. PMID: 2846511

Katayama04: Katayama K, Sakurai I, Wada H (2004). "Identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene for cardiolipin synthase located in mitochondria." FEBS Lett 577(1-2);193-8. PMID: 15527784

Kawasaki99: Kawasaki K, Kuge O, Chang SC, Heacock PN, Rho M, Suzuki K, Nishijima M, Dowhan W (1999). "Isolation of a chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cDNA encoding phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) synthase, expression of which corrects the mitochondrial abnormalities of a PGP synthase-defective mutant of CHO-K1 cells." J Biol Chem 274(3);1828-34. PMID: 9880566

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lu11: Lu YH, Guan Z, Zhao J, Raetz CR (2011). "Three phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate phosphatases in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 286(7);5506-18. PMID: 21148555

Moser14: Moser R, Aktas M, Fritz C, Narberhaus F (2014). "Discovery of a bifunctional cardiolipin/phosphatidylethanolamine synthase in bacteria." Mol Microbiol 92(5);959-72. PMID: 24707916

Ota04: Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs." Nat Genet 36(1);40-5. PMID: 14702039

Raetz78: Raetz CR (1978). "Enzymology, genetics, and regulation of membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli." Microbiol Rev 1978;42(3);614-59. PMID: 362151

Strausberg02: Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, Derge JG, Klausner RD, Collins FS, Wagner L, Shenmen CM, Schuler GD, Altschul SF, Zeeberg B, Buetow KH, Schaefer CF, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Jordan H, Moore T, Max SI, Wang J, Hsieh F, Diatchenko L, Marusina K, Farmer AA, Rubin GM, Hong L, Stapleton M, Soares MB, Bonaldo MF, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brownstein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Prange C, Raha SS, Loquellano NA, Peters GJ, Abramson RD, Mullahy SJ, Bosak SA, McEwan PJ, McKernan KJ, Malek JA, Gunaratne PH, Richards S, Worley KC, Hale S, Garcia AM, Gay LJ, Hulyk SW, Villalon DK, Muzny DM, Sodergren EJ, Lu X, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madan A, Young AC, Shevchenko Y, Bouffard GG, Blakesley RW, Touchman JW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Krzywinski MI, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Marra MA, (2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(26);16899-903. PMID: 12477932

Tang77: Tang CT, Engel R, Tropp BE (1977). "L-Glyceraldehude 3-phosphate, a bactericidal agent." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 11(1);147-53. PMID: 319747

Vani94: Vani T, Raghavendra AS (1994). "High Mitochondrial Activity but Incomplete Engagement of the Cyanide-Resistant Alternative Pathway in Guard Cell Protoplasts of Pea." Plant Physiol 105(4);1263-1268. PMID: 12232282

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Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Thu Dec 18, 2014, biocyc13.