This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Amino Acids Degradation → Proteinogenic Amino Acids Degradation → L-lysine Degradation|
In this pathway, L-lysine is converted to (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate by L-lysine 6-aminotransferase. (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate is subsequently cyclized by spontaneous intramolecular dehydration to 1-piperideine 6-carboxylate [Soda68, Tanizawa85, Fujii00b].
This enzymatic activity has been shown in the γ-proteobacterium Flavobacterium lutescens IFO3084 (previously known as Achromobacter liquidum) [Tanizawa85] and in the actinomycete Streptomyces clavuligerus.
Further catabolism of L-2-aminoadipate in [Flavobacterium] lutescens has not been described although in some other γ-proteobacteria it is catabolized to glutarate (see MetaCyc pathway L-lysine degradation V).
Iin Streptomyces clavuligerus L-2-aminoadipate is a precursor of β-lactam antibiotics and is a substrate for δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (see isopenicillin N biosynthesis) [deLa97].
Superpathways: superpathway of L-lysine degradation
Variants: L-lysine degradation I, L-lysine degradation II (L-pipecolate pathway), L-lysine degradation III, L-lysine degradation IV, L-lysine degradation V, L-lysine degradation VII, L-lysine degradation VIII, L-lysine degradation IX, L-lysine degradation X, L-lysine degradation XI (mammalian), L-lysine fermentation to acetate and butanoate
deLa97: de La Fuente JL, Rumbero A, Martin JF, Liras P (1997). "Delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase, a new enzyme that forms alpha-aminoadipate in Streptomyces clavuligerus and other cephamycin C-producing actinomycetes." Biochem J 327 ( Pt 1);59-64. PMID: 9355735
Fujii00a: Fujii T, Narita T, Agematu H, Agata N, Isshiki K (2000). "Cloning and characterization of pcd encoding delta'-piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase from flavobacterium lutescens IFO3084." J Biochem (Tokyo) 128(6);975-82. PMID: 11098140
Fujii00b: Fujii T, Narita T, Agematu H, Agata N, Isshiki K (2000). "Characterization of L-lysine 6-aminotransferase and its structural gene from Flavobacterium lutescens IFO3084." J Biochem (Tokyo) 128(3);391-7. PMID: 10965037
Soda68: Soda K, Misono H, Yamamoto T (1968). "L-Lysine:alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase. I. Identification of a product, delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid." Biochemistry 7(11);4102-9. PMID: 5722275
Calvert66: Calvert AF, Rodwell VW (1966). "Metabolism of pipecolic acid in a Pseudomonas species. 3. L-alpha-aminoadipate delta-semialdehyde:nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidoreductase." J Biol Chem 241(2);409-14. PMID: 4285660
Mills06: Mills PB, Struys E, Jakobs C, Plecko B, Baxter P, Baumgartner M, Willemsen MA, Omran H, Tacke U, Uhlenberg B, Weschke B, Clayton PT (2006). "Mutations in antiquitin in individuals with pyridoxine-dependent seizures." Nat Med 12(3);307-9. PMID: 16491085
PerezLlarena98: Perez-Llarena FJ, Rodriguez-Garcia A, Enguita FJ, Martin JF, Liras P (1998). "The pcd gene encoding piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase involved in biosynthesis of alpha-aminoadipic acid is located in the cephamycin cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus." J Bacteriol 180(17);4753-6. PMID: 9721323
Romero97: Romero J, Martin JF, Liras P, Demain AL, Rius N (1997). "Partial purification, characterization and nitrogen regulation of the lysine epsilon-aminotransferase of Streptomyces clavuligerus." J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 18(4);241-6. PMID: 9172431
Tobin91: Tobin MB, Kovacevic S, Madduri K, Hoskins JA, Skatrud PL, Vining LC, Stuttard C, Miller JR (1991). "Localization of the lysine epsilon-aminotransferase (lat) and delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (pcbAB) genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus and production of lysine epsilon-aminotransferase activity in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 173(19);6223-9. PMID: 1917855
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