This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: dimorphecolic acid biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid Biosynthesis → Unsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis → Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis → Conjugated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Dimorphotheca sinuata
Expected Taxonomic Range: Magnoliophyta
1) a C-9 hydroxyl group
2) conjugated Δ10,Δ12 double bonds, and
3) two trans double bonds, rather than the much more common cis bonds.
This special fatty acid has potential values in industrial applications such as the manufacture of paints, inks, lubricants, plastics, and nylon.
cDNAs of both enzymes have been cloned. Ectopic expression in yeast and soybean somatic embryo cells demonstrated that FAD2-1 encodes a oleate 12(E)-desaturase, able to convert oleate (18:1Δ9cis) to (9Z,12E)-octadecadienoate (18:2Δ9cis,12trans). The ectopic expression experiments also demonstrated that FAD2-2 encodes a Δ9 fatty acid conjugase-like enzyme that is able to introduce a hydroxyl group at C9 while simultaneously converting the cis Δ9 double bond to a trans Δ10 double bond [Cahoon04].
Dyer02: Dyer JM, Chapital DC, Kuan JC, Mullen RT, Turner C, McKeon TA, Pepperman AB (2002). "Molecular analysis of a bifunctional fatty acid conjugase/desaturase from tung. Implications for the evolution of plant fatty acid diversity." Plant Physiol 130(4);2027-38. PMID: 12481086
Goldfine71: Goldfine H, Panos C (1971). "Phospholipids of Clostridium butyricum. IV. Analysis of the positional isomers of monounsaturated and cyclopropane fatty acids and alk-1'-enyl ethers by capillary column chromatography." J Lipid Res 12(2);214-20. PMID: 5554109
Jaworski74: Jaworski JG, Stumpf PK (1974). "Fat metabolism in higher plants. Properties of a soluble stearyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from maturing Carthamus tinctorius." Arch Biochem Biophys 162(1);158-65. PMID: 4831331
Lager13: Lager I, Yilmaz JL, Zhou XR, Jasieniecka K, Kazachkov M, Wang P, Zou J, Weselake R, Smith MA, Bayon S, Dyer JM, Shockey JM, Heinz E, Green A, Banas A, Stymne S (2013). "Plant acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) have different specificities in their forward and reverse reactions." J Biol Chem 288(52);36902-14. PMID: 24189065
Napier03: Napier JA, Michaelson LV, Sayanova O (2003). "The role of cytochrome b5 fusion desaturases in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 68(2);135-43. PMID: 12538077
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
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