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MetaCyc Pathway: methylglyoxal degradation IV
Traceable author statement to experimental support

Pathway diagram: methylglyoxal degradation IV

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAldehyde Degradation
DetoxificationMethylglyoxal Detoxification

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria

General Background

Methylglyoxal is produced in small amounts during glycolysis (via glycerone phosphate), fatty acid metabolism (via acetone), and protein metabolism (via aminoacetone). Methylglyoxal is highly toxic, most likely as a result of its interaction with protein side chains (see [Kalapos99] for a review). There are several pathways for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, based on different enzymes that are able to convert methylglyoxal to less toxic compounds. These enzymes include glyoxalase enzymes, methylglyoxal reductases, aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases and methylglyoxal dehydrogenases.

About This Pathway

In this pathway, which has been characterized in Escherichia coli K-12, methylglyoxal is reduced to lactaldehyde by the enzyme methylglyoxal reductase [Saikusa87]. (S)-lactaldehyde is then reduced to (S)-lactate which is finally converted to pyruvate and joins the pool of central metobolites [Murata89].

Methylglyoxal reductases have been characterized in bacteria [Saikusa87] and fungi [Murata85, Inoue88a]. Some of the enzymes are NADP-linked, while others are NAD-linked. Two variants of this pathway have been entered in MetaCyc to reflect the different biochemistry of the last enzyme, L-lactate dehydrogenase. The Escherichia coli K-12 enzyme encoded by gene lldD uses an unidentified electron acceptor (see methylglyoxal degradation IV), while the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme uses an an oxidized c-type cytochrome (see methylglyoxal degradation V).

methylglyoxal degradation VI is a similar pathway based on methylglyoxal reductases that are specific for the D form of lactaldehyde.

Superpathways: superpathway of methylglyoxal degradation

Subpathways: L-lactaldehyde degradation (aerobic)

Variants: methylglyoxal degradation I, methylglyoxal degradation II, methylglyoxal degradation III, methylglyoxal degradation V, methylglyoxal degradation VI, methylglyoxal degradation VII, methylglyoxal degradation VIII

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-5459

Created 18-Jan-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International


Inoue88a: Inoue Y, Rhee H, Watanabe K, Murata K, Kimura A (1988). "Metabolism of 2-oxoaldehyde in mold. Purification and characterization of two methylglyoxal reductases from Aspergillus niger." Eur J Biochem 171(1-2);213-8. PMID: 3276516

Kalapos99: Kalapos MP (1999). "Methylglyoxal in living organisms: chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology and biological implications." Toxicol Lett 110(3);145-75. PMID: 10597025

Murata85: Murata K, Fukuda Y, Simosaka M, Watanabe K, Saikusa T, Kimura A (1985). "Metabolism of 2-oxoaldehyde in yeasts. Purification and characterization of NADPH-dependent methylglyoxal-reducing enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Eur J Biochem 151(3);631-6. PMID: 3896793

Murata89: Murata K, Inoue Y, Rhee H, Kimura A (1989). "2-Oxoaldehyde metabolism in microorganisms." Can J Microbiol 35(4);423-31. PMID: 2663129

Saikusa87: Saikusa T, Rhee H, Watanabe K, Murata K, Kimura A (1987). "Metabolism of 2-oxoaldehydes in bacteria: purification and characterization of methylglyoxal reductase from E. coli." Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 51(7): 1893-1899.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Badia91: Badia J, Gimenez R, Baldoma L, Barnes E, Fessner WD, Aguilar J (1991). "L-lyxose metabolism employs the L-rhamnose pathway in mutant cells of Escherichia coli adapted to grow on L-lyxose." J Bacteriol 1991;173(16);5144-50. PMID: 1650346

Baldoma87: Baldoma L, Aguilar J (1987). "Involvement of lactaldehyde dehydrogenase in several metabolic pathways of Escherichia coli K12." J Biol Chem 262(29);13991-6. PMID: 3308886

Baldoma88: Baldoma L, Aguilar J (1988). "Metabolism of L-fucose and L-rhamnose in Escherichia coli: aerobic-anaerobic regulation of L-lactaldehyde dissimilation." J Bacteriol 170(1);416-21. PMID: 3275622

Caballero83: Caballero E, Baldoma L, Ros J, Boronat A, Aguilar J (1983). "Identification of lactaldehyde dehydrogenase and glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase as functions of the same protein in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1983;258(12);7788-92. PMID: 6345530

Chen87: Chen YM, Zhu Y, Lin EC (1987). "NAD-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase for aerobic utilization of L-fucose and L-rhamnose by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1987;169(7);3289-94. PMID: 3298215

Cocks74: Cocks GT, Aguilar T, Lin EC (1974). "Evolution of L-1, 2-propanediol catabolism in Escherichia coli by recruitment of enzymes for L-fucose and L-lactate metabolism." J Bacteriol 118(1);83-8. PMID: 4595205

Di07a: Di Costanzo L, Gomez GA, Christianson DW (2007). "Crystal structure of lactaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli and inferences regarding substrate and cofactor specificity." J Mol Biol 366(2);481-93. PMID: 17173928

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dong93a: Dong JM, Taylor JS, Latour DJ, Iuchi S, Lin EC (1993). "Three overlapping lct genes involved in L-lactate utilization by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1993;175(20);6671-8. PMID: 8407843

ECOSAL: EcoSal "Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology." Online edition.

Eppler02: Eppler T, Postma P, Schutz A, Volker U, Boos W (2002). "Glycerol-3-phosphate-induced catabolite repression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 184(11);3044-52. PMID: 12003946

Ewaschuk05: Ewaschuk JB, Naylor JM, Zello GA (2005). "D-lactate in human and ruminant metabolism." J Nutr 135(7);1619-25. PMID: 15987839

Franchini06: Franchini AG, Egli T (2006). "Global gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12 during short-term and long-term adaptation to glucose-limited continuous culture conditions." Microbiology 152(Pt 7);2111-27. PMID: 16804185

Futai77: Futai M, Kimura H (1977). "Inducible membrane-bound L-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Purification and properties." J Biol Chem 1977;252(16);5820-7. PMID: 18473

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Grochowski06: Grochowski LL, Xu H, White RH (2006). "Identification of lactaldehyde dehydrogenase in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and its involvement in production of lactate for F420 biosynthesis." J Bacteriol 188(8);2836-44. PMID: 16585745

Hacking76: Hacking AJ, Lin EC (1976). "Disruption of the fucose pathway as a consequence of genetic adaptation to propanediol as a carbon source in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 126(3);1166-72. PMID: 181364

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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