If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Glycolysis|
Glycolysis, which was first studied as a pathway for the utilization of glucose, is one of the major pathways of central metabolism, the other two being the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. Glycolysis is essential under all conditions of growth, because it produces six of the 13 precursor metabolites that are the starting materials for the biosynthesis of building blocks for macromolecules and other needed small molecules (the six compounds are β-D-glucose 6-phosphate, β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate, glycerone phosphate, 3-phospho-D-glycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate). Glycolysis can be found, if at least in part, in almost all organisms.
Even though glycolysis is often described starting with glucose, other hexoses (e.g. fructose) can also serve as input (as its name implies - glycose is a general term for simple sugars).
Glycolysis has evolved to fulfill two essential functions:
ii) being an amphibolic pathway (pathway that involves both catabolism and anabolism), it can reversibly produce hexoses from various low-molecular weight molecules.
Because various degradation pathways feed into glycolysis at many different points, glycolysis or portions of it run in the forward or reverse direction, depending on the carbon source being utilized, in order to satisfy the cell's need for precursor metabolites and energy. This switching of direction is possible because all but two of the enzymatic reactions comprising glycolysis are reversible, and the conversions catalyzed by the two exceptions are rendered functionally reversible by other enzymes ( fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase) that catalyze different irreversible reactions flowing in the opposite direction.
About This Pathway
The standard glycolysis pathway ( glycolysis I (from glucose 6-phosphate)) depicts the sugar input into the pathway as glucose. However, the glycolysis pathway is utilized for the degradation of many different types of sugars.
This partial depiction of the glycolysis pathway is used with substrates other than glucose, such as D-allose, L-sorbopyranose , D-mannitol , D-sorbitol , D-mannose and sucrose, which are processed into β-D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate. D-fructose 6-phosphate enters glycolysis and is processed to the end product pyruvate, which is often fermented further into fermentation products such as ethanol, lactate and acetate.
Superpathways: superpathway of N-acetylneuraminate degradation, superpathway of hexitol degradation (bacteria), hexitol fermentation to lactate, formate, ethanol and acetate, superpathway of anaerobic sucrose degradation
Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-5484
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