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MetaCyc Pathway: pyruvate fermentation to ethanol II
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: pyruvate fermentation to ethanol II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyFermentationPyruvate Fermentation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Acetobacter, Aspergillus niger, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Clostridium botulinum, Erwinia amylovora, Glycine max, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sarcina ventriculi, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zea mays, Zymomonas mobilis

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Fungi, Viridiplantae

General Background

This pathway describes a fermentation of pyruvate to ethanol, a common natural pathway that is also used for the generation of alcoholic beverages and breads.

The enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) catalyzes the key step of this pathway. This enzyme is common in higher plants and fungi, but is rare in prokaryotes, and completely absent in animals [Candy98]. The only prokaryotes in which PDC activity has been confirmed (as of 2007) are Zymomonas mobilis, Sarcina ventriculi, Clostridium botulinum, Acetobacter species and Erwinia amylovora.

While the pathway in mostly known for its occurence in yeast, it is also common in higher plants upon conditions of oxygen deprivation caused by flooding (see sucrose degradation II (sucrose synthase)).

Superpathways: superpathway of anaerobic sucrose degradation, superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)

Variants: pyruvate fermentation to acetate and alanine, pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate I, pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate II, pyruvate fermentation to acetate I, pyruvate fermentation to acetate II, pyruvate fermentation to acetate III, pyruvate fermentation to acetate IV, pyruvate fermentation to acetate V, pyruvate fermentation to acetate VI, pyruvate fermentation to acetate VII, pyruvate fermentation to acetate VIII, pyruvate fermentation to acetone, pyruvate fermentation to butanoate, pyruvate fermentation to butanol I, pyruvate fermentation to butanol II, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol I, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol III, pyruvate fermentation to hexanol, pyruvate fermentation to isobutanol (engineered), pyruvate fermentation to lactate, pyruvate fermentation to opines, pyruvate fermentation to propanoate I, pyruvate fermentation to propanoate II (acrylate pathway), superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum acidogenic and solventogenic fermentation, superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum acidogenic fermentation, superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum solventogenic fermentation

Created 21-Feb-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International


Candy98: Candy JM, Duggleby RG (1998). "Structure and properties of pyruvate decarboxylase and site-directed mutagenesis of the Zymomonas mobilis enzyme." Biochim Biophys Acta 1385(2);323-38. PMID: 9655927

Dey97: Dey, PM, Harborne, JB "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press 1997.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Atteia03: Atteia A, van Lis R, Mendoza-Hernandez G, Henze K, Martin W, Riveros-Rosas H, Gonzalez-Halphen D (2003). "Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria." Plant Mol Biol 53(1-2);175-88. PMID: 14756315

Bennetzen82: Bennetzen JL, Hall BD (1982). "The primary structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for alcohol dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 257(6);3018-25. PMID: 6277922

Bindschedler05: Bindschedler LV, Wheatley E, Gay E, Cole J, Cottage A, Bolwell GP (2005). "Characterisation and expression of the pathway from UDP-glucose to UDP-xylose in differentiating tobacco tissue." Plant Mol Biol 57(2);285-301. PMID: 15821883

Boer03: Boer VM, de Winde JH, Pronk JT, Piper MD (2003). "The genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in aerobic chemostat cultures limited for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur." J Biol Chem 278(5);3265-74. PMID: 12414795

Brown73: Brown AT, Patterson CE (1973). "Ethanol production and alcohol dehydrogenase activity in Streptococcus mutans." Arch Oral Biol 18(1);127-31. PMID: 4513107

Catalanotti12: Catalanotti C, Dubini A, Subramanian V, Yang W, Magneschi L, Mus F, Seibert M, Posewitz MC, Grossman AR (2012). "Altered fermentative metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants lacking pyruvate formate lyase and both pyruvate formate lyase and alcohol dehydrogenase." Plant Cell 24(2);692-707. PMID: 22353371

Chae11: Chae, Lee (2011). "The functional annotation of protein sequences was performed by the in-house Ensemble Enzyme Prediction Pipeline (E2P2, version 1.0). E2P2 systematically integrates results from three molecular function annotation algorithms using an ensemble classification scheme. For a given genome, all protein sequences are submitted as individual queries against the base-level annotation methods. The individual methods rely on homology transfer to annotate protein sequences, using single sequence (BLAST, E-value cutoff <= 1e-30, subset of SwissProt 15.3) and multiple sequence (Priam, November 2010; CatFam, version 2.0, 1% FDR profile library) models of enzymatic functions. The base-level predictions are then integrated into a final set of annotations using an average weighted integration algorithm, where the weight of each prediction from each individual method was determined via a 0.632 bootstrap process over 1000 rounds of testing. The training and testing data for E2P2 and the BLAST reference database were drawn from protein sequences with experimental support of existence, compiled from SwissProt release 15.3."

Cheraiti08: Cheraiti N, Sauvage FX, Salmon JM (2008). "Acetaldehyde addition throughout the growth phase alleviates the phenotypic effect of zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77(5);1093-109. PMID: 17938904

Clark89: Clark DP (1989). "The fermentation pathways of Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiol Rev 1989;5(3);223-34. PMID: 2698228

Dennis84: Dennis ES, Gerlach WL, Pryor AJ, Bennetzen JL, Inglis A, Llewellyn D, Sachs MM, Ferl RJ, Peacock WJ (1984). "Molecular analysis of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) gene of maize." Nucleic Acids Res 12(9);3983-4000. PMID: 6328449

Dickinson00: Dickinson JR, Harrison SJ, Dickinson JA, Hewlins MJ (2000). "An investigation of the metabolism of isoleucine to active Amyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 275(15);10937-42. PMID: 10753893

Dickinson03: Dickinson JR, Salgado LE, Hewlins MJ (2003). "The catabolism of amino acids to long chain and complex alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 278(10);8028-34. PMID: 12499363

Dickinson98: Dickinson JR, Harrison SJ, Hewlins MJ (1998). "An investigation of the metabolism of valine to isobutyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273(40);25751-6. PMID: 9748245

Drewke88: Drewke C, Ciriacy M (1988). "Overexpression, purification and properties of alcohol dehydrogenase IV from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochim Biophys Acta 950(1);54-60. PMID: 3282541

Fauchon02: Fauchon M, Lagniel G, Aude JC, Lombardia L, Soularue P, Petat C, Marguerie G, Sentenac A, Werner M, Labarre J (2002). "Sulfur sparing in the yeast proteome in response to sulfur demand." Mol Cell 9(4);713-23. PMID: 11983164

Feldmann94: Feldmann H, Aigle M, Aljinovic G, Andre B, Baclet MC, Barthe C, Baur A, Becam AM, Biteau N, Boles E (1994). "Complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome II." EMBO J 13(24);5795-809. PMID: 7813418

Flikweert96: Flikweert MT, Van Der Zanden L, Janssen WM, Steensma HY, Van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (1996). "Pyruvate decarboxylase: an indispensable enzyme for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose." Yeast 12(3);247-57. PMID: 8904337

Flikweert99: Flikweert MT, de Swaaf M, van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (1999). "Growth requirements of pyruvate-decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae." FEMS Microbiol Lett 174(1);73-9. PMID: 10234824

Ganzhorn87: Ganzhorn AJ, Green DW, Hershey AD, Gould RM, Plapp BV (1987). "Kinetic characterization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenases. Amino acid residue 294 and substrate specificity." J Biol Chem 262(8);3754-61. PMID: 3546317

Gerlach82: Gerlach WL, Pryor AJ, Dennis ES, Ferl RJ, Sachs MM, Peacock WJ (1982). "cDNA cloning and induction of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh1) of maize." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79(9);2981-2985. PMID: 16593188

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sun Feb 14, 2016, biocyc13.