This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Fermentation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Clostridium kluyveri
Expected Taxonomic Range: Firmicutes
The gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri can ferment succinate to butanoate [Bornstein48, Kenealy85]. It can also utilize crotonate, vinylacetate, and 4-hydroxybutanoate [Kenealy85].
A pathway has been proposed in which succinate is first activated to succinyl-CoA and then reduced by a two-step reaction to give 4-hydroxybutanoate, which is then further metabolized to crotonyl-CoA [Kenealy85].The first three enzymes of the propsed pathway, succinyl-CoA:CoA transferase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (NAD) were subsequently described [Sohling93]. A study utilizing 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance as well as enzymatic investigations on the dehydrogenases involved confirmed the proposed pathway [Wolff93]. Another enzyme of the pathway, 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase, a dual function enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration and isomerization of 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA, has been previously described [Bartsch61] and much more recently purified and characterized [Scherf94].
A chromosomal region that contains several of the genes of this pathway has been cloned from Clostridium kluyveri and analyzed. Several of the genes have been expressed in Escherichia coli [Sohling96].
A very similar pathway occurs in the related organism Clostridium aminobutyricum. That organism degrades 4-aminobutanoate by converting it to succinate semialdehyde, which is then processed in the same route as described in this pathway (see 4-aminobutanoate degradation V).
Scherf94: Scherf, U., Soebling, B., Gottschalk, G., Linder, D., Buckel, W. (1994). "Succinate-ethanol fermentation in Clostridium kluyveri: purification and characterization of 4-hydroxybutyrylCoA dehydratase/vinylacetyl-CoA Δ3 - Δ2 isomerase." Arch. Microbiol. 161:239-245.
Sohling93: Sohling B, Gottschalk G (1993). "Purification and characterization of a coenzyme-A-dependent succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium kluyveri." Eur J Biochem 212(1);121-7. PMID: 8444151
Wolff93: Wolff RA, Urben GW, O'Herrin SM, Kenealy WR (1993). "Dehydrogenases involved in the conversion of succinate to 4-hydroxybutanoate by Clostridium kluyveri." Appl Environ Microbiol 59(6);1876-82. PMID: 8328804
Chen94: Chen D, Swenson RP (1994). "Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding the two subunits of the methylotrophic bacterium W3A1 electron transfer flavoprotein." J Biol Chem 269(51);32120-30. PMID: 7798207
Gerhardt00: Gerhardt A, Cinkaya I, Linder D, Huisman G, Buckel W (2000). "Fermentation of 4-aminobutyrate by Clostridium aminobutyricum: cloning of two genes involved in the formation and dehydration of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA." Arch Microbiol 174(3);189-99. PMID: 11041350
Hauge56: Hauge JG, Crane FL, Beinert H (1956). "On the mechanism of dehydrogenation of fatty acyl derivatives of coenzyme A. III. Palmityl coA dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 219(2);727-33. PMID: 13319294
Hawkins14: Hawkins AB, Adams MW, Kelly RM (2014). "Conversion of 4-Hydroxybutyrate to Acetyl-CoA and its Anapleurosis in the Metallosphaera sedula 3-Hydroxypropionate/4-Hydroxybutyrate Carbon Fixation Pathway." Appl Environ Microbiol. PMID: 24532060
Ishizaki06: Ishizaki K, Schauer N, Larson TR, Graham IA, Fernie AR, Leaver CJ (2006). "The mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein complex is essential for survival of Arabidopsis in extended darkness." Plant J 47(5);751-60. PMID: 16923016
Kockelkorn09: Kockelkorn D, Fuchs G (2009). "Malonic semialdehyde reductase, succinic semialdehyde reductase, and succinyl-coenzyme A reductase from Metallosphaera sedula: enzymes of the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle in Sulfolobales." J Bacteriol 191(20);6352-62. PMID: 19684143
Krumholz87: Krumholz LR, Crawford RL, Hemling ME, Bryant MP (1987). "Metabolism of gallate and phloroglucinol in Eubacterium oxidoreducens via 3-hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate." J Bacteriol 1987;169(5);1886-90. PMID: 3571153
Mayhew74: Mayhew SG, Whitfield CD, Ghisla S, Schuman-Jorns M (1974). "Identification and properties of new flavins in electron-transferring flavoprotein from Peptostreptococcus elsdenii and pig-liver glycolate oxidase." Eur J Biochem 44(2);579-91. PMID: 4365840
Muh96: Muh U, Cinkaya I, Albracht SP, Buckel W (1996). "4-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium aminobutyricum: characterization of FAD and iron-sulfur clusters involved in an overall non-redox reaction." Biochemistry 35(36);11710-8. PMID: 8794752
Muh97: Muh U, Buckel W, Bill E (1997). "Mossbauer study of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase--probing the role of an iron-sulfur cluster in an overall non-redox reaction." Eur J Biochem 248(2);380-4. PMID: 9346292
Mullins08: Mullins EA, Francois JA, Kappock TJ (2008). "A specialized citric acid cycle requiring succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) confers acetic acid resistance on the acidophile Acetobacter aceti." J Bacteriol 190(14);4933-40. PMID: 18502856
Nguyen02: Nguyen TV, Riggs C, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, Kim YS, Carpenter JF, Burghardt TP, Gregersen N, Vockley J (2002). "Purification and characterization of two polymorphic variants of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase reveal reduction of catalytic activity and stability of the Gly185Ser enzyme." Biochemistry 41(37);11126-33. PMID: 12220177
RamosVera11: Ramos-Vera WH, Weiss M, Strittmatter E, Kockelkorn D, Fuchs G (2011). "Identification of missing genes and enzymes for autotrophic carbon fixation in crenarchaeota." J Bacteriol 193(5);1201-11. PMID: 21169482
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