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MetaCyc Pathway: urea degradation II
Inferred from experimentTraceable author statement to experimental support

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: urea degradation II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAmines and Polyamines DegradationUrea Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Glycine max, Helicobacter pylori, Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm2011, Streptococcus salivarius

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Fungi, Viridiplantae

Many organisms possess enzymes for the transformation of urea into ammonia and CO2. This conversion can occur in two distinct routes, catalyzed by the enzymes urease and urea carboxylase, respectively.

urease catalyzes the ATP independent cleavage of the amide bonds of urea, forming ammonia and CO2 in a single step. Ureases have been described in plants, fungi, and bacteria, and have been extensively characterized.

This enzyme is nickel dependent, and a number of accessory proteins are necessary for formation of the active enzyme [Benoit03, Maier07].

The enzyme is particularly important for the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, which uses ammonia production by urease for raising the pH in its microenvironment, as well as for controlling the pH homeostasis within the cell [Benoit07]. In that organism, urease accounts for 10-15% of the total protein content of the cell [Bauerfeind97].

The other route of urea conversion, catalyzed by urea carboxylase, has been reported for yeast, algae [Roon68, Roon72, Mackay82] and some bacteria [Kanamori04]. It is described in urea degradation I.

Superpathways: superpathway of allantoin degradation in plants

Variants: urea degradation I

Created 08-Nov-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International


Bauerfeind97: Bauerfeind P, Garner R, Dunn BE, Mobley HL (1997). "Synthesis and activity of Helicobacter pylori urease and catalase at low pH." Gut 40(1);25-30. PMID: 9155571

Benoit03: Benoit S, Maier RJ (2003). "Dependence of Helicobacter pylori urease activity on the nickel-sequestering ability of the UreE accessory protein." J Bacteriol 185(16);4787-95. PMID: 12896998

Benoit07: Benoit SL, Mehta N, Weinberg MV, Maier C, Maier RJ (2007). "Interaction between the Helicobacter pylori accessory proteins HypA and UreE is needed for urease maturation." Microbiology 153(Pt 5);1474-82. PMID: 17464061

Kanamori04: Kanamori T, Kanou N, Atomi H, Imanaka T (2004). "Enzymatic characterization of a prokaryotic urea carboxylase." J Bacteriol 186(9);2532-9. PMID: 15090492

Mackay82: Mackay EM, Pateman JA (1982). "The regulation of urease activity in Aspergillus nidulans." Biochem Genet 20(7-8);763-76. PMID: 6753831

Maier07: Maier RJ, Benoit SL, Seshadri S (2007). "Nickel-binding and accessory proteins facilitating Ni-enzyme maturation in Helicobacter pylori." Biometals 20(3-4);655-64. PMID: 17205208

Roon68: Roon RJ, Levenberg B (1968). "An adenosine triphosphate-dependent, avidin-sensitive enzymatic cleavage of urea in yeast and green algae." J Biol Chem 243(19);5213-5. PMID: 5679987

Roon72: Roon RJ, Levenberg B (1972). "Urea amidolyase. I. Properties of the enzyme from Candida utilis." J Biol Chem 247(13);4107-13. PMID: 4556303

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Bairoch93a: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Burne00: Burne RA, Chen YY (2000). "Bacterial ureases in infectious diseases." Microbes Infect 2(5);533-42. PMID: 10865198

Chen00: Chen YY, Weaver CA, Burne RA (2000). "Dual functions of Streptococcus salivarius urease." J Bacteriol 2000;182(16);4667-9. PMID: 10913107

Chen96a: Chen YY, Clancy KA, Burne RA (1996). "Streptococcus salivarius urease: genetic and biochemical characterization and expression in a dental plaque streptococcus." Infect Immun 1996;64(2);585-92. PMID: 8550211

Freyermuth00: Freyermuth SK, Bacanamwo M, Polacco JC (2000). "The soybean Eu3 gene encodes an Ni-binding protein necessary for urease activity." Plant J 2000;21(1);53-60. PMID: 10652150

Jabri95: Jabri E, Carr MB, Hausinger RP, Karplus PA (1995). "The crystal structure of urease from Klebsiella aerogenes." Science 268(5213);998-1004. PMID: 7754395

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lee92d: Lee MH, Mulrooney SB, Renner MJ, Markowicz Y, Hausinger RP (1992). "Klebsiella aerogenes urease gene cluster: sequence of ureD and demonstration that four accessory genes (ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG) are involved in nickel metallocenter biosynthesis." J Bacteriol 174(13);4324-30. PMID: 1624427

Lee93a: Lee MH, Pankratz HS, Wang S, Scott RA, Finnegan MG, Johnson MK, Ippolito JA, Christianson DW, Hausinger RP (1993). "Purification and characterization of Klebsiella aerogenes UreE protein: a nickel-binding protein that functions in urease metallocenter assembly." Protein Sci 2(6);1042-52. PMID: 8318889

Miksch94: Miksch G, Arnold W, Lentzsch P, Priefer UB, Puhler A (1994). "A 4.6 kb DNA region of Rhizobium meliloti involved in determining urease and hydrogenase activities carries the structural genes for urease (ureA, ureB, ureC) interrupted by other open reading frames." Mol Gen Genet 242(5);539-50. PMID: 8121412

Mobley89: Mobley HL, Hausinger RP (1989). "Microbial ureases: significance, regulation, and molecular characterization." Microbiol Rev 53(1);85-108. PMID: 2651866

Moncrief96: Moncrief MB, Hausinger RP (1996). "Purification and activation properties of UreD-UreF-urease apoprotein complexes." J Bacteriol 178(18);5417-21. PMID: 8808930

Park94: Park IS, Carr MB, Hausinger RP (1994). "In vitro activation of urease apoprotein and role of UreD as a chaperone required for nickel metallocenter assembly." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(8);3233-7. PMID: 7909161

Park95c: Park IS, Hausinger RP (1995). "Requirement of carbon dioxide for in vitro assembly of the urease nickel metallocenter." Science 267(5201);1156-8. PMID: 7855593

Torisky94: Torisky RS, Griffin JD, Yenofsky RL, Polacco JC (1994). "A single gene (Eu4) encodes the tissue-ubiquitous urease of soybean." Mol Gen Genet 1994;242(4);404-14. PMID: 7907165

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Mon Feb 8, 2016, biocyc12.