This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Fermentation → Pyruvate Fermentation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi
In yeasts, respiratory dissimilation of pyruvate is initiated by its conversion into acetyl-CoA. This can occur in two ways: via a direct reaction catalyzed by the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, or via an indirect route, involving pyruvate decarboxylase, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase [Holzer57, Pronk94]
Pyruvate decarboxylase, of which several forms are available, generates acetaldehyde, which is then converted to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae possess several forms of this enzyme, it is only the constitutive cytosolic form, encoded by ALD6, that is thought to be involved in the production of acetate from which cytosolic acetyl-CoA is synthesized [Meaden97].
This proposal is supported by the fact that pyruvate decarboxylase is required for growth on glucose even under nonfermentative conditions, suggesting that the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex cannot function as the sole source of acetyl-CoA during growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose [Flikweert96].
Variants: pyruvate fermentation to acetate and alanine, pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate I, pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate II, pyruvate fermentation to acetate I, pyruvate fermentation to acetate II, pyruvate fermentation to acetate III, pyruvate fermentation to acetate IV, pyruvate fermentation to acetate V, pyruvate fermentation to acetate VI, pyruvate fermentation to acetate VII, pyruvate fermentation to acetone, pyruvate fermentation to butanoate, pyruvate fermentation to butanol I, pyruvate fermentation to butanol II, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol I, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol II, pyruvate fermentation to ethanol III, pyruvate fermentation to hexanol, pyruvate fermentation to isobutanol (engineered), pyruvate fermentation to lactate, pyruvate fermentation to opines, pyruvate fermentation to propanoate I, pyruvate fermentation to propanoate II (acrylate pathway), superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum acidogenic and solventogenic fermentation, superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum acidogenic fermentation, superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum solventogenic fermentation, superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
Flikweert96: Flikweert MT, Van Der Zanden L, Janssen WM, Steensma HY, Van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (1996). "Pyruvate decarboxylase: an indispensable enzyme for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose." Yeast 12(3);247-57. PMID: 8904337
Meaden97: Meaden PG, Dickinson FM, Mifsud A, Tessier W, Westwater J, Bussey H, Midgley M (1997). "The ALD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a cytosolic, Mg(2+)-activated acetaldehyde dehydrogenase." Yeast 13(14);1319-27. PMID: 9392076
Pronk94: Pronk JT, Wenzel TJ, Luttik MA, Klaassen CC, Scheffers WA, Steensma HY, van Dijken JP (1994). "Energetic aspects of glucose metabolism in a pyruvate-dehydrogenase-negative mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Microbiology 140 ( Pt 3);601-10. PMID: 8012582
Boer03: Boer VM, de Winde JH, Pronk JT, Piper MD (2003). "The genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in aerobic chemostat cultures limited for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur." J Biol Chem 278(5);3265-74. PMID: 12414795
Catalanotti12: Catalanotti C, Dubini A, Subramanian V, Yang W, Magneschi L, Mus F, Seibert M, Posewitz MC, Grossman AR (2012). "Altered fermentative metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants lacking pyruvate formate lyase and both pyruvate formate lyase and alcohol dehydrogenase." Plant Cell 24(2);692-707. PMID: 22353371
Chae11: Chae, Lee (2011). "The functional annotation of protein sequences was performed by the in-house Ensemble Enzyme Prediction Pipeline (E2P2, version 1.0). E2P2 systematically integrates results from three molecular function annotation algorithms using an ensemble classification scheme. For a given genome, all protein sequences are submitted as individual queries against the base-level annotation methods. The individual methods rely on homology transfer to annotate protein sequences, using single sequence (BLAST, E-value cutoff <= 1e-30, subset of SwissProt 15.3) and multiple sequence (Priam, November 2010; CatFam, version 2.0, 1% FDR profile library) models of enzymatic functions. The base-level predictions are then integrated into a final set of annotations using an average weighted integration algorithm, where the weight of each prediction from each individual method was determined via a 0.632 bootstrap process over 1000 rounds of testing. The training and testing data for E2P2 and the BLAST reference database were drawn from protein sequences with experimental support of existence, compiled from SwissProt release 15.3."
Dickinson00: Dickinson JR, Harrison SJ, Dickinson JA, Hewlins MJ (2000). "An investigation of the metabolism of isoleucine to active Amyl alcohol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 275(15);10937-42. PMID: 10753893
Fauchon02: Fauchon M, Lagniel G, Aude JC, Lombardia L, Soularue P, Petat C, Marguerie G, Sentenac A, Werner M, Labarre J (2002). "Sulfur sparing in the yeast proteome in response to sulfur demand." Mol Cell 9(4);713-23. PMID: 11983164
Flikweert99: Flikweert MT, de Swaaf M, van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (1999). "Growth requirements of pyruvate-decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae." FEMS Microbiol Lett 174(1);73-9. PMID: 10234824
Hemschemeier08: Hemschemeier A, Jacobs J, Happe T (2008). "Biochemical and physiological characterization of the pyruvate formate-lyase Pfl1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a typically bacterial enzyme in a eukaryotic alga." Eukaryot Cell 7(3);518-26. PMID: 18245276
Kellermann86: Kellermann E, Seeboth PG, Hollenberg CP (1986). "Analysis of the primary structure and promoter function of a pyruvate decarboxylase gene (PDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Nucleic Acids Res 14(22);8963-77. PMID: 3537965
KillenbergJabs96: Killenberg-Jabs M, Konig S, Hohmann S, Hubner G (1996). "Purification and characterisation of the pyruvate decarboxylase from a haploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 377(5);313-7. PMID: 8828822
Lee85: Lee T.C., Langston-Unkefer P.J. "Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zea mays L. I. Purification and partial characterization from mature kernels and anaerobically treated roots." Plant Physiol. (1985) 79:242-247.
Mucke96: Mucke U, Wohlfarth T, Fiedler U, Baumlein H, Rucknagel KP, Konig S (1996). "Pyruvate decarboxylase from Pisum sativum. Properties, nucleotide and amino acid sequences." Eur J Biochem 237(2);373-82. PMID: 8647075
NavarroAvino99: Navarro-Avino JP, Prasad R, Miralles VJ, Benito RM, Serrano R (1999). "A proposal for nomenclature of aldehyde dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of the stress-inducible ALD2 and ALD3 genes." Yeast 15(10A);829-42. PMID: 10407263
Neale87: Neale AD, Scopes RK, Wettenhall RE, Hoogenraad NJ (1987). "Pyruvate decarboxylase of Zymomonas mobilis: isolation, properties, and genetic expression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 169(3);1024-8. PMID: 3546263
Seeboth90: Seeboth PG, Bohnsack K, Hollenberg CP (1990). "pdc1(0) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae give evidence for an additional structural PDC gene: cloning of PDC5, a gene homologous to PDC1." J Bacteriol 172(2);678-85. PMID: 2404950
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