If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: auxin biosynthesis, indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis, IAA de novo synthesis, IAA biosynthesis II
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Hormones Biosynthesis → Plant Hormones Biosynthesis → Auxins Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
The phytohormone family of auxins regulates many plant biological processes including cell division, elongation, differentiation, root initiation, tropic responses, flowering, fruit ripening, and senescence [Woodward05]. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most abundant natural plant auxin.
Several tryptophan-dependent pathways have been proposed for the biosynthesis of IAA in plants over the years. While it is now believed that the main pathway consists of only two steps (see indole-3-acetate biosynthesis I), this diagram describes the various other proposals and observations.
In addition, acumulation of IAA in Arabidopsis mutants which have tryptophan synthesis blocked at different steps suggests that IAA can be synthesized by a tryptophan independent route. Indole-3-glycerol phosphate is the branching point of the tryptophan independent route [Normanly93, Ouyang00].
IAA can be conjugated to a number of amino acids and other functional groups (see superpathway of indole-3-acetate conjugate biosynthesis). In some cases, these conjugates can be cleaved to release free IAA as well (see indole-3-acetate activation I and indole-3-acetate activation II).
Some bacterial plant pathogens, such as Agrobacteria, which carry IAA biosynthesis enzymes on the Ti-plasmid, also produce IAA in a different pathway. One such pathway includes the connversion of tryptophan to indoleacetamide (IAM) and then to IAA through the activity of an IAM hydrolase (see indole-3-acetate biosynthesis III (bacteria) and indole-3-acetate biosynthesis IV (bacteria)). Although the full bacterial pathway is not present in plants, IAM and IAM hydrolase activity have been detected in Arabidopsis thaliana and a number of other plant species, including rice, wheat, and pea (see references in [Neu07].
Variants: indole-3-acetate activation I, indole-3-acetate activation II, indole-3-acetate biosynthesis I, indole-3-acetate biosynthesis III (bacteria), indole-3-acetate biosynthesis IV (bacteria), indole-3-acetate biosynthesis V (bacteria and fungi), L-tryptophan degradation VII (via indole-3-pyruvate), methyl indole-3-acetate interconversion
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Ouyang00: Ouyang J, Shao X, Li J (2000). "Indole-3-glycerol phosphate, a branchpoint of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis from the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant J 2000;24(3);327-33. PMID: 11069706
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Cooney91: Cooney, T.P., Nonhebel, H.M. (1991). "Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in tomato shoots: Measurement, mass-spectral identification and incorporation of -2H from -2H2O into indole-3-acetic acid, d- and l-tryptophan, indole-3-pyruvate and tryptamine." Planta. 184 (3): 368-376.
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Jin10: Jin JM, Lee S, Lee J, Baek SR, Kim JC, Yun SH, Park SY, Kang S, Lee YW (2010). "Functional characterization and manipulation of the apicidin biosynthetic pathway in Fusarium semitectum." Mol Microbiol 76(2);456-66. PMID: 20233305
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