If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: superpathway of phylloquinone biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → Quinol and Quinone Biosynthesis → Phylloquinol Biosynthesis|
Phylloquinone (vitamin K1, 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) acts as the electron transfer cofactor A1 of photosystem I (PS I) in higher plants and cyanobacteria. In non-photosynthetic microbes the very similar compound a menaquinone plays an essential role in several anaerobic electron transport systems [Sharma96]. The chemical structure of menaquinone (vitamin K2) exhibits a partly unsaturated side chain consisting most often 7 prenyl units, whereas phylloquinone consists of a mostly saturated phytyl side chain of 4 units [Shimada05].
The biosynthesis of phylloquinone was studied in detail in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the genes encoding enzymes of this pathway were identified by comparison with genes encoding enzymes of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli (see menaquinol-8 biosynthesis) [Sharma96]. With the isolation and functional confirmation of the homolog genes in Synechocystis encoding for 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate phytyltransferase, naphthoyl-CoA synthase [Johnson00], 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone methyltransferase [Sakuragi02], 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate synthase and O-succinylbenzoate synthase [Johnson03], most of the enzymatic steps of the phylloquinone bisoynthesis have been determined and proven to be highly identical with those in the menaquinone biosynthesis.
The biosynthesis of certain components of the multienzyme complex PS I (such as phylloquinone) in cyanobacteria and plants have been found to follow analogous routes, including corresponding enzymatic activities [Heide82a] [Kolkmann87, Simantiras89, Simantiras91], reflecting the phylogenetic origin of PS I in photosynthetic microbes.
About This Pathway
The enzymatic steps involved in the biosynthesis of phylloquinone in cyanobacteria and plants are almost identical to the biosynthetic route leading to the microbial complement menaquinone. The discernible step between phylloquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis is the prenylation of 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA). The DHNA phytyltransferase catalyzes the attachment of a C-20 phytyl side chain leading to demethylphylloquinone [Shimada05], whereas microbial DHNA prenyltransferases attache a multiprenyl side chain, forming demethylmenaquinones. The length of the side chain varies among different species.
It has been found that phylloquinone is not absolutely required for efficient electron transfer in PS I [Johnson00]. At least in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, benzoquinones such as plastoquinone-9, which usually act as secondary electron acceptors in PS II [Johnson01a, Sakuragi05], can efficiently replace phylloquinone in the A1-site of PS I as a one-electron cofactor. However, as shown in both Arabidopsis and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants, the deficiency of phylloquinone causes distortions in the thylakoid structure of chloroplasts, decreases the content of PS I, and affects the functionality of PS II [Shimada05].
Fujimoto12: Fujimoto N., Kosaka T., Yamada M. (2012). "Menaquinone as Well as Ubiquinone as a Crucial Component in the Escherichia coli Respiratory Chain." Chapter 10 in Chemical Biology, edited by D Ekinci, ISBN 978-953-51-0049-2.
Heide82a: Heide L, Kolkmann R, Arendt S, Leistner E (1982). "Enzymic synthesis of o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA in cell-free extracts of anthraquinone producing Galium mollugo L. cell suspension cultures." Plant Cell Reports, 1, 180-182.
Johnson00: Johnson TW, Shen G, Zybailov B, Kolling D, Reategui R, Beauparlant S, Vassiliev IR, Bryant DA, Jones AD, Golbeck JH, Chitnis PR (2000). "Recruitment of a foreign quinone into the A(1) site of photosystem I. I. Genetic and physiological characterization of phylloquinone biosynthetic pathway mutants in Synechocystis sp. pcc 6803." J Biol Chem 275(12);8523-30. PMID: 10722690
Johnson01a: Johnson TW, Zybailov B, Jones AD, Bittl R, Zech S, Stehlik D, Golbeck JH, Chitnis PR (2001). "Recruitment of a foreign quinone into the A1 site of photosystem I. In vivo replacement of plastoquinone-9 by media-supplemented naphthoquinones in phylloquinone biosynthetic pathway mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803." J Biol Chem 276(43);39512-21. PMID: 11470786
Johnson03: Johnson TW, Naithani S, Steward Jr C, Zybailov B, Jones AD, Golbeck JH, Chitnis PR (2003). "The menD and menE homologs code for 2-succinyl-6-hydroxyl-2, 4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase and O-succinylbenzoic acid-CoA synthase in the phylloquinone biosynthetic pathway of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1557, 67-76.
Sakuragi02: Sakuragi Y, Zybailov B, Shen G, Jones AD, Chitnis PR, van der Est A, Bittl R, Zech S, Stehlik D, Golbeck JH, Bryant DA (2002). "Insertional inactivation of the menG gene, encoding 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone methyltransferase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, results in the incorporation of 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone into the A(1) site and alteration of the equilibrium constant between A(1) and F(X) in photosystem I." Biochemistry 41(1);394-405. PMID: 11772039
Sakuragi05: Sakuragi Y, Zybailov B, Shen G, Bryant DA, Golbeck JH, Diner BA, Karygina I, Pushkar Y, Stehlik D (2005). "Recruitment of a foreign quinone into the A1 site of photosystem I. Characterization of a menB rubA double deletion mutant in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 devoid of FX, FA, and FB and containing plastoquinone or exchanged 9,10-anthraquinone." J Biol Chem 280(13);12371-81. PMID: 15681848
Sharma96: Sharma V, Hudspeth ME, Meganathan R (1996). "Menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis: localization and characterization of the menE gene from Escherichia coli." Gene 1996;168(1);43-8. PMID: 8626063
Shimada05: Shimada H, Ohno R, Shibata M, Ikegami I, Onai K, Ohto MA, Takamiya K (2005). "Inactivation and deficiency of core proteins of photosystems I and II caused by genetical phylloquinone and plastoquinone deficiency but retained lamellar structure in a T-DNA mutant of Arabidopsis.." Plant J 41(4);627-37. PMID: 15686525
Simantiras89: Simantiras M, Leistner E (1989). "Formation of o-succinylbenzoic acid from iso-chorismic acid in protein extracts from anthraquinone-producing plant cell suspension cultures." Phytochemistry, 28, 1381-1382.
Simantiras91: Simantiras M, Leistner E (1991). "Cell free synthesis of O-succinylbenzoic acid in protein extracts from anthraquinone and phylloquinone (vitamin K1) producing plant cell suspension cultures. Occurrence of intermediates between isochorismic and O-succinylbenzoic acid." Z. Naturforsch., 46c, 364-370.
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Caldelari01: Caldelari D, Sternberg H, Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Gruissem W, Yalovsky S (2001). "Efficient prenylation by a plant geranylgeranyltransferase-I requires a functional CaaL box motif and a proximal polybasic domain." Plant Physiol 126(4);1416-29. PMID: 11500541
Chen11a: Chen M, Jiang M, Sun Y, Guo ZF, Guo Z (2011). "Stabilization of the second oxyanion intermediate by 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A synthase of the menaquinone pathway: spectroscopic evidence of the involvement of a conserved aspartic acid." Biochemistry 50(26);5893-904. PMID: 21627110
Chen13: Chen M, Ma X, Chen X, Jiang M, Song H, Guo Z (2013). "Identification of a Hotdog Fold Thioesterase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Menaquinone in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 195(12);2768-75. PMID: 23564174
Chen93a: Chen A, Poulter CD (1993). "Purification and characterization of farnesyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. A thermostable bifunctional enzyme from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum." J Biol Chem 268(15);11002-7. PMID: 8388380
Dahm98: Dahm C, Muller R, Schulte G, Schmidt K, Leistner E (1998). "The role of isochorismate hydroxymutase genes entC and menF in enterobactin and menaquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1425(2);377-86. PMID: 9795253
Daruwala96: Daruwala R, Kwon O, Meganathan R, Hudspeth ME (1996). "A new isochorismate synthase specifically involved in menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis encoded by the menF gene." FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996;140(2-3);159-63. PMID: 8764478
Daruwala97: Daruwala R, Bhattacharyya DK, Kwon O, Meganathan R (1997). "Menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and characterization of a new isochorismate synthase from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1997;179(10);3133-8. PMID: 9150206
Dogbo87: Dogbo, O., Camara, B. (1987). "Purification of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Capsicum chromoplasts by affinity chromatography." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism 920(2):140-148.
Fang11: Fang M, Macova A, Hanson KL, Kos J, Palmer DR (2011). "Using substrate analogues to probe the kinetic mechanism and active site of Escherichia coli MenD." Biochemistry 50(40);8712-21. PMID: 21928762
Gross06: Gross J, Cho WK, Lezhneva L, Falk J, Krupinska K, Shinozaki K, Seki M, Herrmann RG, Meurer J (2006). "A plant locus essential for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) biosynthesis originated from a fusion of four eubacterial genes." J Biol Chem 281(25);17189-96. PMID: 16617180
Heide82: Heide L, Arendt S, Leistner E (1982). "Enzymatic synthesis, characterization, and metabolism of the coenzyme A ester of o-succinylbenzoic acid, an intermediate in menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 1982;257(13);7396-400. PMID: 7045104
Huycke01: Huycke MM, Moore D, Joyce W, Wise P, Shepard L, Kotake Y, Gilmore MS (2001). "Extracellular superoxide production by Enterococcus faecalis requires demethylmenaquinone and is attenuated by functional terminal quinol oxidases." Mol Microbiol 42(3);729-40. PMID: 11722738
Jiang07: Jiang M, Cao Y, Guo ZF, Chen M, Chen X, Guo Z (2007). "Menaquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: identification of 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate as a novel intermediate and re-evaluation of MenD activity." Biochemistry 46(38);10979-89. PMID: 17760421
Jiang08: Jiang M, Chen X, Guo ZF, Cao Y, Chen M, Guo Z (2008). "Identification and Characterization of (1R,6R)-2-Succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate Synthase in the Menaquinone Biosynthesis of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 47(11);3426-34. PMID: 18284213
Jiang09: Jiang M, Chen X, Wu XH, Chen M, Wu YD, Guo Z (2009). "Catalytic mechanism of SHCHC synthase in the menaquinone biosynthesis of Escherichia coli: identification and mutational analysis of the active site residues." Biochemistry 48(29);6921-31. PMID: 19545176
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