This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: superpathway of plastoquinone biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → Quinol and Quinone Biosynthesis → Plastoquinol Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Anabaena variabilis, Arabidopsis thaliana col, Chlorogloeopsis fritschii, Desmonostoc muscorum, Mastigocladus laminosus, Spinacia oleracea, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
Plastoquinone, like ubiquinone, is a benzoquinone electron carrier. Plastoquinone is a member of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and is also a cofactor involved in the desaturation of phytoene in the synthesis of carotenoid, a photosynthetic pigment. It is found in higher plants, cyanobacteria and red, brown and green algae.
Plastoquinone was isolated originally in in 1946 from alfalfa, but wasn't identified at the time. It was rediscovered in 1959 and its structure described in the same year (see [Collins81]).
The committed step in plastoquinone biosynthesis is condensation of homogentisate (providing the aromatic head) and all-trans-nonaprenyl diphosphate (providing the hydrophobic prenyl tail). An analogous reaction is found in the pathway for vitamin E biosynthesis (tocopherols).
There is some indication that the pathway for plastoquinone biosynthesis in cyanobacteria may be different than that of plants. Inactivation of the cyanobacterial 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate, while abolishing tocopherol biosynthesis, had no effect on the synthesis of plastoquinone [Dahnhardt02]. This finding suggests that plastoquinone may be synthesized in cyanobacteria by a different pathway. However, such an alternative pathway has not been described.
Variants: plastoquinol-9 biosynthesis II
Dahnhardt02: Dahnhardt D, Falk J, Appel J, van der Kooij TA, Schulz-Friedrich R, Krupinska K (2002). "The hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is not required for plastoquinone biosynthesis." FEBS Lett 523(1-3);177-81. PMID: 12123828
Soll85: Soll J, Schultz G, Joyard J, Douce R, Block MA (1985). "Localization and synthesis of prenylquinones in isolated outer and inner envelope membranes from spinach chloroplasts." Arch Biochem Biophys 238(1);290-9. PMID: 3985624
Brownlee04: Brownlee JM, Johnson-Winters K, Harrison DH, Moran GR (2004). "Structure of the ferrous form of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase from Streptomyces avermitilis in complex with the therapeutic herbicide, NTBC." Biochemistry 43(21);6370-7. PMID: 15157070
Cheng03: Cheng Z, Sattler S, Maeda H, Sakuragi Y, Bryant DA, DellaPenna D (2003). "Highly divergent methyltransferases catalyze a conserved reaction in tocopherol and plastoquinone synthesis in cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes." Plant Cell 15(10);2343-56. PMID: 14508009
Collier72: Collier RH, Kohlhaw G (1972). "Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1972;112(1);365-71. PMID: 4404056
DeEknamkul87: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Purification and characterization of tyrosine aminotransferase activities from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures." Arch Biochem Biophys 257(2);430-8. PMID: 2889425
Dietrich91: Dietrich JB, Lorber B, Kern D (1991). "Expression of mammalian tyrosine aminotransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purification to homogeneity and characterization of the enzyme overproduced in the bacteria." Eur J Biochem 201(2);399-407. PMID: 1682148
Garcia00: Garcia I, Job D, Matringe M (2000). "Inhibition of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase by the diketonitrile of isoxaflutole: a case of half-site reactivity." Biochemistry 39(25);7501-7. PMID: 10858299
Garcia99: Garcia I, Rodgers M, Pepin R, Hsieh TF, Matringe M (1999). "Characterization and subcellular compartmentation of recombinant 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from Arabidopsis in transgenic tobacco." Plant Physiol 119(4);1507-16. PMID: 10198110
Gu98: Gu W, Song J, Bonner CA, Xie G, Jensen RA (1998). "PhhC is an essential aminotransferase for aromatic amino acid catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 11);3127-34. PMID: 9846749
Gunsior04: Gunsior M, Ravel J, Challis GL, Townsend CA (2004). "Engineering p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase to a p-hydroxymandelate synthase and evidence for the proposed benzene oxide intermediate in homogentisate formation." Biochemistry 43(3);663-74. PMID: 14730970
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