MetaCyc Pathway: 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAromatic Compounds Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Anchusa officinalis, Arabidopsis thaliana col, Bacillus subtilis, Homo sapiens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota

The conversion of L-tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate by an aminotransferase is a common reaction, found in most organisms. In some organisms it is part of degradative pathways (as in L-tyrosine degradation I) while in others it is part of biosynthetic pathways (as in plastoquinol-9 biosynthesis I).

4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate is an central precursor, which is used for the synthesis of primary metabolites such as plastoquinone-9 and vitamin E, both important quinones found in all oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, as well as secondary metabolites, such as rosmarinate.

Superpathways: superpathway of plastoquinol biosynthesis

Created 23-Apr-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Cahoon03: Cahoon EB, Hall SE, Ripp KG, Ganzke TS, Hitz WD, Coughlan SJ (2003). "Metabolic redesign of vitamin E biosynthesis in plants for tocotrienol production and increased antioxidant content." Nat Biotechnol 21(9);1082-7. PMID: 12897790

DeEknamkul87: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Tyrosine aminotransferase: the entrypoint enzyme of the tyrosine-derived pathway in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis." Phytochemistry, 26(7), 1941-1946.

Horvath: Horvath G, Wessjohann L, Bigirimana J, Monica H, Jansen M, Guisez Y, Caubergs R, Horemans N "Accumulation of tocopherols and tocotrienols during seed development of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albert Lavallee)." Plant Physiol Biochem 44(11-12);724-31. PMID: 17110122

KamalEldin96: Kamal-Eldin A, Appelqvist LA (1996). "The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols." Lipids 31(7);671-701. PMID: 8827691

Padley94: Padley FB, Gunstone FD, Harwood JL (1994). "The Lipid Handbook." In: The Lipid Handbook, 2nd Edn. (eds. Gunstone, F.D., Harwood, J.L., and Padley, F.B.) 130 Chapman & Hall, London,.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Andersson82: Andersson SM, Pispa JP (1982). "Purification and properties of human liver tyrosine aminotransferase." Clin Chim Acta 125(2);117-23. PMID: 6128088

AriasBarrau04: Arias-Barrau E, Olivera ER, Luengo JM, Fernandez C, Galan B, Garcia JL, Diaz E, Minambres B (2004). "The homogentisate pathway: a central catabolic pathway involved in the degradation of L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and 3-hydroxyphenylacetate in Pseudomonas putida." J Bacteriol 186(15);5062-77. PMID: 15262943

Blakley77: Blakley ER (1977). "The catabolism of L-tyrosine by an Arthrobacter sp." Can J Microbiol 23(9);1128-39. PMID: 20216

Collier72: Collier RH, Kohlhaw G (1972). "Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1972;112(1);365-71. PMID: 4404056

DeEknamkul87a: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Purification and characterization of tyrosine aminotransferase activities from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures." Arch Biochem Biophys 257(2);430-8. PMID: 2889425

Dietrich91: Dietrich JB, Lorber B, Kern D (1991). "Expression of mammalian tyrosine aminotransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purification to homogeneity and characterization of the enzyme overproduced in the bacteria." Eur J Biochem 201(2);399-407. PMID: 1682148

Editors93: "Bacillus subtilis and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Genetics." (1993). Editors: Sonenshein, A.L., Hoch, J.A., Losick, R. American Society For Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Gelfand77: Gelfand DH, Steinberg RA (1977). "Escherichia coli mutants deficient in the aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases." J Bacteriol 1977;130(1);429-40. PMID: 15983

Gu98: Gu W, Song J, Bonner CA, Xie G, Jensen RA (1998). "PhhC is an essential aminotransferase for aromatic amino acid catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 11);3127-34. PMID: 9846749

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Mavrides75: Mavrides C, Orr W (1975). "Multispecific aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 250(11);4128-33. PMID: 236311

Natt92: Natt E, Kida K, Odievre M, Di Rocco M, Scherer G (1992). "Point mutations in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene in tyrosinemia type II." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(19);9297-301. PMID: 1357662

Nester76: Nester EW, Montoya AL (1976). "An enzyme common to histidine and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis." J Bacteriol 1976;126(2);699-705. PMID: 4431

Ohisalo82: Ohisalo JJ, Laskowska-Klita T, Andersson SM (1982). "Development of tyrosine aminotransferase and para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase activities in fetal and neonatal human liver." J Clin Invest 70(1);198-200. PMID: 6123525

Powell78: Powell JT, Morrison JF (1978). "The purification and properties of the aspartate aminotransferase and aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferase from Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 1978;87(2);391-400. PMID: 352693

Powell78a: Powell JT, Morrison JF (1978). "Role of the Escherichia coli aromatic amino acid aminotransferase in leucine biosynthesis." J Bacteriol 136(1);1-4. PMID: 361681

Schneider08: Schneider P, Bouhired S, Hoffmeister D (2008). "Characterization of the atromentin biosynthesis genes and enzymes in the homobasidiomycete Tapinella panuoides." Fungal Genet Biol 45(11);1487-96. PMID: 18805498

Seralini95: Seralini GE, Luu-The V, Labrie F (1995). "Cloning and expression of human tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA." Biochim Biophys Acta 1260(1);97-101. PMID: 7999802

Sivaraman06: Sivaraman S, Kirsch JF (2006). "The narrow substrate specificity of human tyrosine aminotransferase--the enzyme deficient in tyrosinemia type II." FEBS J 273(9);1920-9. PMID: 16640556

Stepanova08: Stepanova AN, Robertson-Hoyt J, Yun J, Benavente LM, Xie DY, Dolezal K, Schlereth A, Jurgens G, Alonso JM (2008). "TAA1-mediated auxin biosynthesis is essential for hormone crosstalk and plant development." Cell 133(1);177-91. PMID: 18394997

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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