This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Terpenoids Biosynthesis → Carotenoids Biosynthesis → Lycopene biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 , Myxococcus xanthus , Neurospora crassa , Pantoea ananatis , Pantoea stewartii , Rubrivivax gelatinosus , Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
All-trans-lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in many photosynthetic organisms. Its name is derived from the name of the tomato plant, Solanum lycopersicum, in which it is found in large amounts. All-trans-lycopene is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of many carotenoids, which are responsible for pigmentation, photosynthesis, and photo-protection in plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms.
The first committed step of carotenoid biosynthesis is that of the formation of 15-cis-phytoene from geranylgeranyl diphosphate. This conversion is in fact a two-step reaction catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene synthase.
In general, bacteria, fungi and plants differ in their conversion of 15-cis-phytoene to all-trans-lycopene. In noncyanobacterial bacteria and fungi the pathway starts with the isomerization of 15-cis-phytoene to all-trans-phytoene, and the rest of the pathway proceeds via exclusively trans isomers. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, on the other hand, the pathway proceeeds via cis isomers, and the conversion from cis to trans occurs at the very end of the pathway, where prolycopene is converted to all-trans-lycopene by the dedicated enzyme carotenoid isomerase (CrtQ in cyanobacteria). The plant pathway is described in trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (plants).
About This Pathway
Two types of enzymes have been described in bacteria that produce all-trans-lycopene. In many organisms, such as Pantoea ananatis, a single FAD-containing enzyme, CrtI, catalyzes the initial isomerization and the four subsequent desaturation reactions necessary to convert 15-cis-phytoene to all-trans-lycopene, via the intermediate all-trans phytofluene, all-trans-ζ-carotene and all-trans neurosporene. In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, on the other hand, two enzymes are required for this process. The first one, CrtIa, catalyzes the initial isomerization and the first two desaturation steps, while the second one, CrtIb, catalyzes the two desaturation steps from all-trans-ζ-carotene to all-trans-lycopene.
Superpathways: β-carotene biosynthesis (engineered)
Subpathways: neurosporene biosynthesis
Variants: trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (plants)
Bartley99: Bartley GE, Scolnik PA, Beyer P (1999). "Two Arabidopsis thaliana carotene desaturases, phytoene desaturase and zeta-carotene desaturase, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyze a poly-cis pathway to yield pro-lycopene." Eur J Biochem 1999;259(1-2);396-403. PMID: 9914519
Harada01: Harada J, Nagashima KV, Takaichi S, Misawa N, Matsuura K, Shimada K (2001). "Phytoene desaturase, CrtI, of the purple photosynthetic bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus, produces both neurosporene and lycopene." Plant Cell Physiol 42(10);1112-8. PMID: 11673627
Hausmann00: Hausmann A, Sandmann G (2000). "A single five-step desaturase is involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway to beta-carotene and torulene in Neurospora crassa." Fungal Genet Biol 30(2);147-53. PMID: 11017770
Tsuchiya05: Tsuchiya T, Takaichi S, Misawa N, Maoka T, Miyashita H, Mimuro M (2005). "The cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 uses bacterial-type phytoene desaturase in carotenoid biosynthesis." FEBS Lett 579(10);2125-9. PMID: 15811329
Bartley90: Bartley GE, Schmidhauser TJ, Yanofsky C, Scolnik PA (1990). "Carotenoid desaturases from Rhodobacter capsulatus and Neurospora crassa are structurally and functionally conserved and contain domains homologous to flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases." J Biol Chem 265(26);16020-4. PMID: 2144293
Bartley92: Bartley GE, Viitanen PV, Bacot KO, Scolnik PA (1992). "A tomato gene expressed during fruit ripening encodes an enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway." J Biol Chem 267(8);5036-9. PMID: 1544888
Botella95: Botella JA, Murillo FJ, Ruiz-Vazquez R (1995). "A cluster of structural and regulatory genes for light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus." Eur J Biochem 233(1);238-48. PMID: 7588751
Chen10b: Chen Y, Li F, Wurtzel ET (2010). "Isolation and characterization of the Z-ISO gene encoding a missing component of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants." Plant Physiol 153(1);66-79. PMID: 20335404
Fraser94: Fraser PD, Truesdale MR, Bird CR, Schuch W, Bramley PM (1994). "Carotenoid Biosynthesis during Tomato Fruit Development (Evidence for Tissue-Specific Gene Expression)." Plant Physiol 105(1);405-413. PMID: 12232210
Linden91: Linden H, Misawa N, Chamovitz D, Pecker I, Hirschberg J, Sandmann G (1991). "Functional complementation in Escherichia coli of different phytoene desaturase genes and analysis of accumulated carotenes." Z Naturforsch C 46(11-12);1045-51. PMID: 1817513
Lodato07: Lodato P, Alcaino J, Barahona S, Niklitschek M, Carmona M, Wozniak A, Baeza M, Jimenez A, Cifuentes V (2007). "Expression of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous." Biol Res 40(1);73-84. PMID: 17657357
MartinezLaborda90: Martinez-Laborda A, Balsalobre JM, Fontes M, Murillo FJ (1990). "Accumulation of carotenoids in structural and regulatory mutants of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus." Mol Gen Genet 223(2);205-10. PMID: 2123519
Misawa90: Misawa N, Nakagawa M, Kobayashi K, Yamano S, Izawa Y, Nakamura K, Harashima K (1990). "Elucidation of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by functional analysis of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 172(12);6704-12. PMID: 2254247
Paine05: Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chaggar S, Howells RM, Kennedy MJ, Vernon G, Wright SY, Hinchliffe E, Adams JL, Silverstone AL, Drake R (2005). "Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content." Nat Biotechnol 23(4);482-7. PMID: 15793573
Pinta03: Pinta V, Ouchane S, Picaud M, Takaichi S, Astier C, Reiss-Husson F (2003). "Characterization of unusual hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids in Rubrivivax gelatinosus: involvement of enzyme CrtF or CrtA." Arch Microbiol 179(5);354-62. PMID: 12664193
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