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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
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for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
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MetaCyc Pathway: acyl carrier protein metabolism I

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: [acp] metabolism, ACP metabolism

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea , Bacteria

Summary:
All polyketide synthases, fatty-acid synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthases require post-translational modification of their constituent acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) domains to become catalytically active. The inactive apo-proteins are converted into their active holo-forms by transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A to the side chain hydroxy group of a conserved serine residue in each ACP domain.

The human L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase-phosphopantetheinyl transferase enzyme can activate both the ACP domain of the human cytosolic multifunctional fatty acid synthase and that associated with human mitochondria as well as peptidyl-carrier and acyl-carrier proteins from prokaryotes [Joshi03]. In yeast, on the other hand, three different enzymes catalyze the activation of different ACP proteins.

Removal of the 4-phosphopantetheinyl moiety from holo-ACP is carried out by EC 3.1.4.14, acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase. The enzyme from Escherichia coli has been characterized, and found not to be essential for growth. Its physiological role of is unknown [Thomas05].

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-6012

Credits:
Created 13-Aug-2008 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Joshi03: Joshi AK, Zhang L, Rangan VS, Smith S (2003). "Cloning, expression, and characterization of a human 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase with broad substrate specificity." J Biol Chem 278(35);33142-9. PMID: 12815048

Thomas05: Thomas J, Cronan JE (2005). "The enigmatic acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase of Escherichia coli: genetic and enzymological characterization." J Biol Chem 280(41);34675-83. PMID: 16107329

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Broadwater99: Broadwater JA, Fox BG (1999). "Spinach holo-acyl carrier protein: overproduction and phosphopantetheinylation in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), in vitro acylation, and enzymatic desaturation of histidine-tagged isoform I." Protein Expr Purif 15(3);314-26. PMID: 10092491

Byers07: Byers DM, Gong H (2007). "Acyl carrier protein: structure-function relationships in a conserved multifunctional protein family." Biochem Cell Biol 85(6);649-62. PMID: 18059524

Carreras97: Carreras CW, Gehring AM, Walsh CT, Khosla C (1997). "Utilization of enzymatically phosphopantetheinylated acyl carrier proteins and acetyl-acyl carrier proteins by the actinorhodin polyketide synthase." Biochemistry 36(39);11757-61. PMID: 9305965

Cox97: Cox RJ, Hitchman TS, Byrom KJ, Findlow IS, Tanner JA, Crosby J, Simpson TJ (1997). "Post-translational modification of heterologously expressed Streptomyces type II polyketide synthase acyl carrier proteins." FEBS Lett 405(3);267-72. PMID: 9108302

Cronan84: Cronan JE (1984). "Evidence that incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into the phospholipids of Escherichia coli does not require acyl carrier protein." J Bacteriol 159(2);773-5. PMID: 6378892

De06a: De Lay NR, Cronan JE (2006). "A genome rearrangement has orphaned the Escherichia coli K-12 AcpT phosphopantetheinyl transferase from its cognate Escherichia coli O157:H7 substrates." Mol Microbiol 61(1);232-42. PMID: 16824108

De08: De Lay NR, Cronan JE (2008). "Genetic interaction between the Escherichia coli AcpT phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the YejM inner membrane protein." Genetics 178(3);1327-37. PMID: 18245839

Debabov96: Debabov DV, Heaton MP, Zhang Q, Stewart KD, Lambalot RH, Neuhaus FC (1996). "The D-Alanyl carrier protein in Lactobacillus casei: cloning, sequencing, and expression of dltC." J Bacteriol 178(13);3869-76. PMID: 8682792

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Elovson68: Elovson J, Vagelos PR (1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase." J Biol Chem 1968;243(13);3603-11. PMID: 4872726

Fischl90: Fischl AS, Kennedy EP (1990). "Isolation and properties of acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 172(9);5445-9. PMID: 2168383

Flugel00: Flugel RS, Hwangbo Y, Lambalot RH, Cronan JE, Walsh CT (2000). "Holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase and phosphopantetheinyl transfer in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 2000;275(2);959-68. PMID: 10625633

Gehring97a: Gehring AM, Lambalot RH, Vogel KW, Drueckhammer DG, Walsh CT (1997). "Ability of Streptomyces spp. acyl carrier proteins and coenzyme A analogs to serve as substrates in vitro for E. coli holo-ACP synthase." Chem Biol 4(1);17-24. PMID: 9070424

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Hirvas97: Hirvas L, Nurminen M, Helander IM, Vuorio R, Vaara M (1997). "The lipid A biosynthesis deficiency of the Escherichia coli antibiotic-supersensitive mutant LH530 is suppressed by a novel locus, ORF195." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 1);73-81. PMID: 9025280

Jackowski83: Jackowski S, Rock CO (1983). "Ratio of active to inactive forms of acyl carrier protein in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 258(24);15186-91. PMID: 6317688

Jaworski89: Jaworski JG, Post-Beittenmiller MA, Ohlrogge JB (1989). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the spinach acyl carrier protein-I prosthetic group attachment site." Eur J Biochem 184(3);603-9. PMID: 2553397

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Dec 22, 2014, biocyc11.