This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: vitexin and vitexin glycosides biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Phenylpropanoid Derivatives Biosynthesis → Flavonoids Biosynthesis → Flavones Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
Flavonoids are highly diverse class of plant secondary metabolites (with about 9000 compounds have been identified so far [Martens05]) synthesized by the phenylpropanoid pathway. They exhibit a wide range of biological functions in higher plants such as UV protection, flower coloration, and antimicrobial activity [Harborne00]. They also exhibit antioxidant and anticancer properties [Le02b] [Long08a].
Flavones are a class of flavonoid synthesized from flavanones as the direct biosynthetical precursor. Flavone formation in various tissues of a wide range of higher and lower plant species is catalyzed by the flavone synthase belong to the plant cytochrome P450 superfamily [Long08a]. The flavones can be classified into several subgroups based on (i) hydroxylation, (ii) O-methylation, (iii) C-methylation, (iv) isoprenylation, or (v) methylenedioxy substitutions. Vitexin and its derivatives are 8-O-glycosilated flavones naturally occur in wide range of plants.
Long08a: Long X, Fan M, Bigsby RM, Nephew KP (2008). "Apigenin inhibits antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cell growth through estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent and estrogen receptor-alpha-independent mechanisms." Mol Cancer Ther 7(7);2096-108. PMID: 18645020
Heinsbroek80: Heinsbroek, R, Van Brederode, J, Van Nigtevecht, G, Maas, J, Kamsteeg, J, Besson, E (1980). "The 2"-O-glucosylation of vitexin and isovitexin in petals of Silene alba is catalysed by two dfferent enzymes." Phytochemistry 19:1935-1937.
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