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MetaCyc Pathway: vitexin and derivatives biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: vitexin and derivatives biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: vitexin and vitexin glycosides biosynthesis

Superclasses: BiosynthesisSecondary Metabolites BiosynthesisPhenylpropanoid Derivatives BiosynthesisFlavonoids BiosynthesisFlavones Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Avena sativa, Silene latifolia

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

Flavonoids are highly diverse class of plant secondary metabolites (with about 9000 compounds have been identified so far [Martens05]) synthesized by the phenylpropanoid pathway. They exhibit a wide range of biological functions in higher plants such as UV protection, flower coloration, and antimicrobial activity [Harborne00]. They also exhibit antioxidant and anticancer properties [Le02a] [Long08].


Flavones are a class of flavonoid synthesized from flavanones as the direct biosynthetical precursor. Flavone formation in various tissues of a wide range of higher and lower plant species is catalyzed by the flavone synthase belong to the plant cytochrome P450 superfamily [Long08]. The flavones can be classified into several subgroups based on (i) hydroxylation, (ii) O-methylation, (iii) C-methylation, (iv) isoprenylation, or (v) methylenedioxy substitutions. Vitexin and its derivatives are 8-O-glycosilated flavones naturally occur in wide range of plants.

Created 25-Aug-2008 by Karthikeyan AS, TAIR


Harborne00: Harborne JB, Williams CA (2000). "Advances in flavonoid research since 1992." Phytochemistry 55(6);481-504. PMID: 11130659

Khan78: Khan SM, Darnall DW (1978). "The hydrolysis of 3-(2-furylacryloyl)-glycyl-l-leucine amide by thermolysin." Anal Biochem 86(1);332-6. PMID: 655395

Le02a: Le Marchand L (2002). "Cancer preventive effects of flavonoids--a review." Biomed Pharmacother 56(6);296-301. PMID: 12224601

Long08: Long X, Fan M, Bigsby RM, Nephew KP (2008). "Apigenin inhibits antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cell growth through estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent and estrogen receptor-alpha-independent mechanisms." Mol Cancer Ther 7(7);2096-108. PMID: 18645020

Martens05: Martens S, Mithofer A (2005). "Flavones and flavone synthases." Phytochemistry 66(20);2399-407. PMID: 16137727

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Heinsbroek80: Heinsbroek, R, Van Brederode, J, Van Nigtevecht, G, Maas, J, Kamsteeg, J, Besson, E (1980). "The 2"-O-glucosylation of vitexin and isovitexin in petals of Silene alba is catalysed by two dfferent enzymes." Phytochemistry 19:1935-1937.

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lazarowski03: Lazarowski ER, Shea DA, Boucher RC, Harden TK (2003). "Release of cellular UDP-glucose as a potential extracellular signaling molecule." Mol Pharmacol 63(5);1190-7. PMID: 12695547

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Apr 30, 2016, biocyc11.