This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: DMSP degradation, superpathway of dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Inorganic Nutrients Metabolism → Sulfur Compounds Metabolism → Dimethylsulfoniopropanoate Degradation|
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an osmolyte of many marine algae and certain plants [Otte04]. Marine phytoplankton synthesize DMSP not only as an osmolyte, but also as a predator deterrent and an antioxidant [Howard06]. DMSP is readily degraded in a variety of biological systems, including bacterial cultures, salt marsh sediments, and seawater samples containing algae and zooplankton [Kiene88].
Two main routes are known for DMSP degradation, leading to formation of dimethyl sulfide and 3-(methylthio)propanoate, respectively. dimethyl sulfide, which is very volatile, is exchanged freely between the ocean and the atmosphere, and is the main natural source of sulfur to the atmosphere. DMS influences climate because it is oxidized in the troposphere to sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which attract water and promote cloud formation [Charlson87]. However, most of the DMS in the oceanic environment is degraded biologically (see dimethyl sulfide degradation I).
The second product of DMSP degradation, 3-(methylthio)propanoate, can be processed in either of two ways: it can be cleaved to methanethiol and acrylate, or it can be demethylated further to form 3-mercaptopropanoate [Kiene88, Taylor91].
In a study of marine bacteria in coastal seawater fifteen strains that belong to the Roseobacter group were isolated from seawater and characterized with respect to their ability to transform organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. All of the isolates were able to degrade DMSP to DMS by the cleavage pathway. In addition, five of the isolates also produced methanethiol, indicating that both the cleavage and demethylation pathways for DMSP occurred in the same organisms [Gonzalez99].
Gonzalez99: Gonzalez JM, Kiene RP, Moran MA (1999). "Transformation of sulfur compounds by an abundant lineage of marine bacteria in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria." Appl Environ Microbiol 65(9);3810-9. PMID: 10473380
Howard06: Howard EC, Henriksen JR, Buchan A, Reisch CR, Burgmann H, Welsh R, Ye W, Gonzalez JM, Mace K, Joye SB, Kiene RP, Whitman WB, Moran MA (2006). "Bacterial taxa that limit sulfur flux from the ocean." Science 314(5799);649-52. PMID: 17068264
Curson08: Curson AR, Rogers R, Todd JD, Brearley CA, Johnston AW (2008). "Molecular genetic analysis of a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase that liberates the climate-changing gas dimethylsulfide in several marine alpha-proteobacteria and Rhodobacter sphaeroides." Environ Microbiol 10(3);757-67. PMID: 18237308
deSouza95: de Souza MP, Yoch DC (1995). "Comparative Physiology of Dimethyl Sulfide Production by Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Lyase in Pseudomonas doudoroffii and Alcaligenes sp. Strain M3A." Appl Environ Microbiol 61(11);3986-3991. PMID: 16535162
deSouza95a: de Souza MP, Yoch DC (1995). "Purification and Characterization of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Lyase from an Alcaligenes-Like Dimethyl Sulfide-Producing Marine Isolate." Appl Environ Microbiol 61(1);21-26. PMID: 16534905
Ferrandez96: Ferrandez A., Garcia J.L., Diaz E. (1996). "Metabolism of methylated osmolytes by aerobic bacteria from Mono Lake, a moderately hypersaline, alkaline environment." Data submission to EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases on 1996-11.
Kiene99: Kiene RP, Linn LJ, Gonzalez J, Moran MA, Bruton JA (1999). "Dimethylsulfoniopropionate and methanethiol are important precursors of methionine and protein-sulfur in marine bacterioplankton." Appl Environ Microbiol 65(10);4549-58. PMID: 10508088
Kirkwood10: Kirkwood M, Todd JD, Rypien KL, Johnston AW (2010). "The opportunistic coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii contains dddP and makes dimethyl sulfide from dimethylsulfoniopropionate." ISME J 4(1);147-50. PMID: 19776768
Kirkwood10a: Kirkwood, M., Le Brun, N. E., Todd, J. D., Johnston, A. W. B. (2010). "The dddP gene of Roseovarius nubinhibens encodes a novel lyase that cleaves dimethylsulfoniopropionate into acrylate plus dimethylsulfide." Microbiology 156(6):1900-1906. PMID: 20378650
Ploux88: Ploux O, Masamune S, Walsh CT (1988). "The NADPH-linked acetoacetyl-CoA reductase from Zoogloea ramigera. Characterization and mechanistic studies of the cloned enzyme over-produced in Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 174(1);177-82. PMID: 3286259
Reisch08: Reisch CR, Moran MA, Whitman WB (2008). "Dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dependent demethylase (DmdA) from Pelagibacter ubique and Silicibacter pomeroyi." J Bacteriol 190(24);8018-24. PMID: 18849431
Reisch11: Reisch CR, Stoudemayer MJ, Varaljay VA, Amster IJ, Moran MA, Whitman WB (2011). "Novel pathway for assimilation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate widespread in marine bacteria." Nature 473(7346);208-11. PMID: 21562561
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
Schuller12: Schuller DJ, Reisch CR, Moran MA, Whitman WB, Lanzilotta WN (2012). "Structures of dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dependent demethylase from the marine organism Pelagabacter ubique." Protein Sci 21(2);289-98. PMID: 22162093
Tan13a: Tan D, Crabb WM, Whitman WB, Tong L (2013). "Crystal structure of DmdD, a crotonase superfamily enzyme that catalyzes the hydration and hydrolysis of methylthioacryloyl-CoA." PLoS One 8(5);e63870. PMID: 23704947
Todd09: Todd JD, Curson AR, Dupont CL, Nicholson P, Johnston AW (2009). "The dddP gene, encoding a novel enzyme that converts dimethylsulfoniopropionate into dimethyl sulfide, is widespread in ocean metagenomes and marine bacteria and also occurs in some Ascomycete fungi." Environ Microbiol 11(6);1376-85. PMID: 19220400
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