If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: TNT degradation
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Aromatic Compounds Degradation → Nitroaromatic Compounds Degradation → Nitrotoluene Degradation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), a nitroaromatic explosive, is a highly persistent organic pollutant introduced into the environment from the industries involved in the manufacture, packaging, use and decommissioning of explosives. It is a primary target for remediation because of its toxicity (as a class-C carcinogen) and the global extent of environmental contamination.
Phytoremidiation is emerging as a viable alternative strategy to the current methods of TNT clean-up. With their extensive root systems, plants have a remarkable ability to extract compounds from their surroundings.Several studies have investigated the tolerance of plants to TNT and the active uptake of TNT by plant roots. a study with the aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian Watermilfoil) has shown that it can transforms TNT. Rapid disappearance of TNT from the plant culture media was followed by the appearance of aminodinitrotoluenes (ADNT), with lower levels of hydroxylaminodinitrotoluene (HADNT) and diaminonitrotoluenes (DANT). However, these products accounted for less than 20% of the transformed TNT. The unaccounted for mass of TNT and/or transformation products was not detectable in the plant culture media nor was it extractable from the plant matrix [Pavlostathis98].
A later study with Arabidopsis thaliana has demonstrated the reductive transformation of TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluene (HADNT), and then aminodinitrotoluene (ADNT), followed by glucosylation [GandiaHerrero08].
GandiaHerrero08: Gandia-Herrero F, Lorenz A, Larson T, Graham IA, Bowles DJ, Rylott EL, Bruce NC (2008). "Detoxification of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Arabidopsis- discovery of bifunctional O- and C-glucosyltransferases." Plant J NIL. PMID: 18702669
Pavlostathis98: Pavlostathis, S.G., Comstock, K.K., Jacobson, M.E., Sauders, F.M. (1998). "Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotolueneby the aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum. Environ." Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 2266-2273.
Jones03: Jones P, Messner B, Nakajima J, Schaffner AR, Saito K (2003). "UGT73C6 and UGT78D1, glycosyltransferases involved in flavonol glycoside biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana." J Biol Chem 278(45);43910-8. PMID: 12900416
Kim06d: Kim JH, Kim BG, Ko JH, Lee Y, Hur H-G, Lim Y, Ahn J-H (2006). "Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a flavonoid glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Science, 170(4), 897-903.
Tognetti10: Tognetti VB, Van Aken O, Morreel K, Vandenbroucke K, van de Cotte B, De Clercq I, Chiwocha S, Fenske R, Prinsen E, Boerjan W, Genty B, Stubbs KA, Inze D, Van Breusegem F (2010). "Perturbation of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Homeostasis by the UDP-Glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 Modulates Arabidopsis Architecture and Water Stress Tolerance." Plant Cell. PMID: 20798329
Veach03: Veach YK, Martin RC, Mok DW, Malbeck J, Vankova R, Mok MC (2003). "O-glucosylation of cis-zeatin in maize. Characterization of genes, enzymes, and endogenous cytokinins." Plant Physiol 131(3);1374-80. PMID: 12644686
Willits04: Willits MG, Giovanni M, Prata RT, Kramer CM, De Luca V, Steffens JC, Graser G (2004). "Bio-fermentation of modified flavonoids: an example of in vivo diversification of secondary metabolites." Phytochemistry 65(1);31-41. PMID: 14697269
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