If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: quercetin sulphate biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Phenylpropanoid Derivatives Biosynthesis → Flavonoids Biosynthesis → Flavonols Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
Flavonoids are a class of plant secondary metabolites widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Over 10,000 flavonoids have been described in the literature [Tahara07]. They display important functions as attractants for pollinators, protective agents against UV light and various pathogens, antibiotics, and signal molecules involved in symbiosis with Rhizobia. Apart from their biological functions, they are also known for their antioxidant and anticancer and other bioactivities in humans.
Flavonoids are usually found as water-soluble glycosides. However, the occurrence of methoxylated, acylated or sulfated derivatives of flavonoids have also been reported in plants. The presence of over 80 different flavonoids sulfates has been reported from various plant species [Barron88].
Enzymatic sulfonation of flavonoids is catalyzed by a family of sulfotransferases (STs) that transfer the sulfonate group of 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate to the hydroxyl group of a flavonoid to produce a sulfate flavonoid ester.
Superpathways: superpathway of flavones and derivatives biosynthesis
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Gauthier98: Gauthier A, Gulick PJ, Ibrahim RK (1998). "Characterization of two cDNA clones which encode O-methyltransferases for the methylation of both flavonoid and phenylpropanoid compounds." Arch Biochem Biophys 351(2);243-9. PMID: 9514654
Ibdah03: Ibdah M, Zhang XH, Schmidt J, Vogt T (2003). "A novel Mg(2+)-dependent O-methyltransferase in the phenylpropanoid metabolism of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum." J Biol Chem 278(45);43961-72. PMID: 12941960
Kopycki08: Kopycki JG, Rauh D, Chumanevich AA, Neumann P, Vogt T, Stubbs MT (2008). "Biochemical and structural analysis of substrate promiscuity in plant Mg2+-dependent O-methyltransferases." J Mol Biol 378(1);154-64. PMID: 18342334
Muzac00: Muzac I, Wang J, Anzellotti D, Zhang H, Ibrahim RK (2000). "Functional expression of an Arabidopsis cDNA clone encoding a flavonol 3'-O-methyltransferase and characterization of the gene product." Arch Biochem Biophys 2000;375(2);385-8. PMID: 10700397
Schmidt11: Schmidt A, Li C, Shi F, Jones AD, Pichersky E (2011). "Polymethylated myricetin in trichomes of the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites and characterization of trichome-specific 3'/5'- and 7/4'-myricetin O-methyltransferases." Plant Physiol 155(4);1999-2009. PMID: 21343428
Wils13: Wils CR, Brandt W, Manke K, Vogt T (2013). "A single amino acid determines position specificity of an Arabidopsis thaliana CCoAOMT-like O-methyltransferase." FEBS Lett 587(6);683-9. PMID: 23416302
Zhang97a: Zhang H, Wang J, Goodman HM (1997). "An Arabidopsis gene encoding a putative 14-3-3-interacting protein, caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1997;1353(3);199-202. PMID: 9349713
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