MetaCyc Pathway: sucrose degradation III (sucrose invertase)
Inferred from experimentAuthor statement

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: sucrose degradation III (sucrose invertase)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: sucrose mobilization

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationCarbohydrates DegradationSugars DegradationSucrose Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, Nicotiana tabacum, Oryza sativa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Spinacia oleracea

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota

In this pathway sucrose is cleaved by invertase ( EC, β-fructofuranosidase). This enzyme acts on β-D-fructofuranosides, releasing β-D-fructofuranose. When acting on sucrose, the products are β-D-fructofuranose and D-glucopyranose.

Invertases were studied extensively in yeast [Neumann67, BACON54], from which the enzyme was originally isolated in 1860 [Berthelot60]. However, invertase activity is very common in plants and other organisms.

The plant invertase activity is found in the cytoplasm, vacuole, and apoplast [Dey97a].

The hexoses generated by invertase are used to meet the energy and substrate requirements of the organism for growth, storage, or energy production.

Variants: sucrose degradation I (sucrose phosphotransferase), sucrose degradation II (sucrose synthase), sucrose degradation IV (sucrose phosphorylase), sucrose degradation V (sucrose α-glucosidase), sucrose degradation VII (sucrose 3-dehydrogenase), superpathway of anaerobic sucrose degradation

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-621

Revised 16-Aug-2013 by Caspi R, SRI International


BACON54: BACON JS (1954). "The oligosaccharides produced by the action of yeast invertase preparations on sucrose." Biochem J 57(2);320-8. PMID: 13172188

Berthelot60: Berthelot, M. (1860). "Sur la fermentation glucosigne du sucre de canne." C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 50-980.

Ciereszko01: Ciereszko I, Johansson H, Hurry V, Kleczkowski LA (2001). "Phosphate status affects the gene expression, protein content and enzymatic activity of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in wild-type and pho mutants of Arabidopsis." Planta 2001;212(4);598-605. PMID: 11525517

Dey97: Dey, PM, Harborne, JB "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press 1997.

Dey97a: Dey, P. M., Harborne, J. B. (1997). "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press Inc., San Diego, USA.

Martin93a: Martin T, Frommer WB, Salanoubat M, Willmitzer L (1993). "Expression of an Arabidopsis sucrose synthase gene indicates a role in metabolization of sucrose both during phloem loading and in sink organs." Plant J 1993;4(2);367-77. PMID: 8220487

Neumann67: Neumann NP, Lampen JO (1967). "Purification and properties of yeast invertase." Biochemistry 6(2);468-75. PMID: 4963242

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Alajmo90: Alajmo E, de Meester W, Polli G (1990). "Facial nerve involvement: macroscopic and clinical evidence, therapeutic approach." Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 10 Suppl 29;35-42. PMID: 2177945

Albig88: Albig W, Entian KD (1988). "Structure of yeast glucokinase, a strongly diverged specific aldo-hexose-phosphorylating isoenzyme." Gene 73(1);141-52. PMID: 3072253

Asensio58: Asensio C, Sols A (1958). "Utilization and phosphorylation of sugars by Escherichia coli." Rev Esp Fisiol 14(4);269-75. PMID: 13658662

Asensio63: Asensio C, Avigad G, Horecker BL (1963). "Preferential galactose utilization in a mutant strain of E. coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 103;299-309. PMID: 14103281

Barratt09: Barratt DH, Derbyshire P, Findlay K, Pike M, Wellner N, Lunn J, Feil R, Simpson C, Maule AJ, Smith AM (2009). "Normal growth of Arabidopsis requires cytosolic invertase but not sucrose synthase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(31);13124-9. PMID: 19470642

Baveja86: Baveja UK, Jyoti AS, Kaur M, Agarwal DS, Anand BS, Nanda R (1986). "Isoenzyme studies of Giardia lamblia isolated from symptomatic cases." Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 64 ( Pt 2);119-26. PMID: 2943257

Baysdorfer89: Baysdorfer C., Kremer D.F., Sicher R.C. "Partial purification and characterization of fructokinase activity from Barley leaves." J. Plant Physiol. (1989) 134:156-161.

Bertrand76: Bertrand O, Kahn A, Cottreau D, Boivin P (1976). "Human leukocyte glucose-phosphate-isomerase purification by affinity elution and immunological study." Biochimie 58(3);261-7. PMID: 819039

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

But12: But SY, Rozova ON, Khmelenina VN, Reshetnikov AS, Trotsenko YA (2012). "Properties of recombinant ATP-dependent fructokinase from the halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z." Biochemistry (Mosc) 77(4);372-7. PMID: 22809156

But13: But SY, Khmelenina VN, Reshetnikov AS, Trotsenko YA (2013). "Bifunctional sucrose phosphate synthase/phosphatase is involved in the sucrose biosynthesis by Methylobacillus flagellatus KT." FEMS Microbiol Lett. PMID: 23865613

But13a: But SIu, Khmelina VN, Mustakhimova II, Trotsenko IuA (2013). "[Production and characterization of Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z knockout mutants, which has sucrose and ectoin synthesis defective genes]." Mikrobiologiia 82(2);251-3. PMID: 23808151

But15: But SY, Khmelenina VN, Reshetnikov AS, Mustakhimov II, Kalyuzhnaya MG, Trotsenko YA (2015). "Sucrose metabolism in halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z." Arch Microbiol. PMID: 25577257

Caescu04: Caescu CI, Vidal O, Krzewinski F, Artenie V, Bouquelet S (2004). "Bifidobacterium longum requires a fructokinase (Frk; ATP:D-fructose 6-phosphotransferase, EC for fructose catabolism." J Bacteriol 186(19);6515-25. PMID: 15375133

Charng94: Charng YY, Juang RH, Su JC, Sung HY (1994). "Partial purification and characterization of invertase isozymes from rice grains (Oryza sativa)." Biochem Mol Biol Int 1994;33(3);607-15. PMID: 7951078

Conklin75: Conklin KA, Yamashiro KM, Gray GM (1975). "Human intestinal sucrase-isomaltase. Identification of free sucrase and isomaltase and cleavage of the hybrid into active distinct subunits." J Biol Chem 250(15);5735-41. PMID: 807575

Curtis75: Curtis SJ, Epstein W (1975). "Phosphorylation of D-glucose in Escherichia coli mutants defective in glucosephosphotransferase, mannosephosphotransferase, and glucokinase." J Bacteriol 122(3);1189-99. PMID: 1097393

Dai99: Dai N, Schaffer A, Petreikov M, Shahak Y, Giller Y, Ratner K, Levine A, Granot D (1999). "Overexpression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in tomato plants inhibits growth, reduces photosynthesis, and induces rapid senescence." Plant Cell 11(7);1253-66. PMID: 10402427

deVries67: de Vries W, Gerbrandy SJ, Stouthamer AH (1967). "Carbohydrate metabolism in Bifidobacterium bifidum." Biochim Biophys Acta 136(3);415-25. PMID: 6048259

Doronina03: Doronina N, Darmaeva T, Trotsenko Y (2003). "Methylophaga natronica sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic, restricted-facultatively methylotrophic bacterium from soda lake of the Southern Transbaikal region." Syst Appl Microbiol 26(3);382-9. PMID: 14529181

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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