This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Terpenoids Biosynthesis → Sesquiterpenoids Biosynthesis → Bergamotene Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
Bergamotenes are sesquiterpenoids that are components of volatile oils from a number of plants. They function as insect repellents in some plants, although they may also function as attractants for certain organisms. There are several isomers of bergamotene, including (-)-endo-α-bergamotene, (+)-endo-β-bergamotene, (-)-exo-α-bergamotene and (+)-exo-β-bergamotene.
In members of Solanaceae bergamotenes play a role in defense against insects [Sallaud09]. The domesticated Solanum lycopersicum plant does not produce bergamotenes, but its wild relative Solanum habrochaites does [vanDer00]. Many plants have lost some of their inherent survival traits during domestication.
This pathway depicts the steps of bergamotene biosynthesis in the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites. The enzyme santalene and bergamontene synthase, which is encoded by the SBS gene, acts specifically on (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate to produce three major terpenes (-)-endo-α-bergamotene, (+)-endo-β-bergamotene and (+)-α-santalene [Sallaud09].
Variants: bergamotene biosynthesis I
Abyshev07: Abyshev, A. Z, Agaev, E.M, Guseinov, A.B (2007). "Studies of the chemical composition of birch bark extracts (Cortex betula) from the Betulaceae family." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 41, 419-423.
Cĵnsoli02: Cĵnsoli FL, Williams HJ, Vinson SB, Matthews RW, Cooperband MF (2002). "Trans-bergamotenes-male pheromone of the ectoparasitoid Melittobia digitata." J Chem Ecol 28(8);1675-89. PMID: 12371819
Sallaud09: Sallaud C, Rontein D, Onillon S, Jabes F, Duffe P, Giacalone C, Thoraval S, Escoffier C, Herbette G, Leonhardt N, Causse M, Tissier A (2009). "A novel pathway for sesquiterpene biosynthesis from Z,Z-farnesyl pyrophosphate in the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites." Plant Cell 21(1);301-17. PMID: 19155349
vanDer00: van Der Hoeven RS, Monforte AJ, Breeden D, Tanksley SD, Steffens JC (2000). "Genetic control and evolution of sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Lycopersicon esculentum and L. hirsutum." Plant Cell 12(11);2283-94. PMID: 11090225
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