This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Terpenoids Biosynthesis → Sesquiterpenoids Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
Sandalwood is grown in India, Australia and China, the scented wood and oil are prized for their fragrances and use in cosmetics and medicinal use [Jones06]. The oil is produced by the heartwood and the oil components have been isolated and characterized in Santalum album, S. spicatum and the chinese sandal. In addtion to the santanols it is composed of sesquiterpenoids mainly the (+)-α-santalene and the (-)-β-santalene and a host of other terpenes in minor and varying quantities [Adams75]. Four structural classes of sesquiterpenoids have been isolated and found as co-occuring sesquiterpenes; (+)-α-santalene, (-)-β-santalene and bergamotene; and b-curcumene; b-bisabolene and a-bisabolol and along with four unidentified sesquiterpenes [Jones06]. The lack common structural intermediate between these compounds is said to indicate the possibility of 4 different classes of sesquiterpene cyclases to be present in sandal wood trees.
The glandular trichomes of wild tomato Solanum habrochaites are the sites of biosynthesis of several class II sesquiterpene olefins. The Sst2 locus on chromosome 8 is responsible for these enzymes. Two candidate genes identified from this region are, zFPS encoding a protein with homology to Z-isoprenyl pyrophosphate synthases and SBS encoding for Santalene and Bergamotene Synthase [Sallaud09].
Jones06: Jones CG, Ghisalberti EL, Plummer JA, Barbour EL (2006). "Quantitative co-occurrence of sesquiterpenes; a tool for elucidating their biosynthesis in Indian sandalwood, Santalum album." Phytochemistry 67(22);2463-8. PMID: 17045624
Jones08: Jones CG, Keeling CI, Ghisalberti EL, Barbour EL, Plummer JA, Bohlmann J (2008). "Isolation of cDNAs and functional characterisation of two multi-product terpene synthase enzymes from sandalwood, Santalum album L." Arch Biochem Biophys 477(1);121-30. PMID: 18541135
Sallaud09: Sallaud C, Rontein D, Onillon S, Jabes F, Duffe P, Giacalone C, Thoraval S, Escoffier C, Herbette G, Leonhardt N, Causse M, Tissier A (2009). "A novel pathway for sesquiterpene biosynthesis from Z,Z-farnesyl pyrophosphate in the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites." Plant Cell 21(1);301-17. PMID: 19155349
Huikuri09: Huikuri HV, Raatikainen MJ, Moerch-Joergensen R, Hartikainen J, Virtanen V, Boland J, Anttonen O, Hoest N, Boersma LV, Platou ES, Messier MD, Bloch-Thomsen PE, Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification after Acute Myocardial Infarction study group (2009). "Prediction of fatal or near-fatal cardiac arrhythmia events in patients with depressed left ventricular function after an acute myocardial infarction." Eur Heart J 30(6);689-98. PMID: 19155249
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