This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Polyketides Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: cellular organisms
plumbagine is the napthoquinone, 5-Hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. It was isolated from Plumbago indica and subsequently identified in a number of microbes and other plants. This secondary metabolite has several pharmacological uses such as antimicrobial, antimalarial and anticancer agents. Its action on non-small lung cells has been demonstrated [Gomathinayagam]. Plumbagin's role as an antiproliferative agent shows that it disrupts the microtubule network by tubulin binding [Gomathinayagam]. It is a promising chemotherapeutic candidate for breast cancer [Thasni08]. It is a yellow colored pigment. plumbagine accumulates in the roots of Plumbago indica. plumbagine is made of 6 acetate units as seen in Drosophyllum lusitanicum and Plumbago europaea [Springob07]. The basic skeleton of the napthpthaquinone plumbagine is produced by a polyketide synthase.
Gomathinayagam: Gomathinayagam R, Sowmyalakshmi S, Mardhatillah F, Kumar R, Akbarsha MA, Damodaran C "Anticancer mechanism of plumbagin, a natural compound, on non-small cell lung cancer cells." Anticancer Res 28(2A);785-92. PMID: 18507021
Springob07: Springob K, Samappito S, Jindaprasert A, Schmidt J, Page JE, De-Eknamkul W, Kutchan TM (2007). "A polyketide synthase of Plumbago indica that catalyzes the formation of hexaketide pyrones." FEBS J 274(2);406-17. PMID: 17229146
Thasni08: Thasni KA, Rakesh S, Rojini G, Ratheeshkumar T, Srinivas G, Priya S (2008). "Estrogen-dependent cell signaling and apoptosis in BRCA1-blocked BG1 ovarian cancer cells in response to plumbagin and other chemotherapeutic agents." Ann Oncol 19(4);696-705. PMID: 18187487
Bringmann98: Bringmann, G, Wohgarth, M, Rischer, H, Rlickert, M, Schlauer, J (1998). "The Polyketide Folding Mode in the Biogenesis of Isoshinanolone and Plumnbagin from Ancistrocladus heyneanus (Ancistrodadaceae).." Tetrahedron Letters, 39, 8445-8448.
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
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