This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Polyketides Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Rubus idaeus
Expected Taxonomic Range: Rubus
The flavors of raspberry Rubus idaeus are targets for biotechnological engineering projects. The p-coumaroyltriacetate, p-coumaroyltriacetic acid lactone, 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and 4-hydroxyphenylbutan-2-one (raspberry ketone) are some of the aromatic compounds of raspberry that have been studied extensively [Pedapudi00]. Several kinds of polyketide synthases have been identified in Rubus including, chalcone synthase (CHS), benzalactone synthase (BAS) and stilbene synthase (STS) [BorejszaWysocki96]. The enzymes have been purified and characterized [Zheng01a], [Zheng08]. The PKS enzymes from Rubus belong to a family of 11 genes which fall into a cluster, suggestive of a recent duplication event. The spatial differences in gene expression of these polyketide synthases showed that variation was based on developmental regulation rather than any evolution in the structural genes themselves [Kumar03a].
BorejszaWysocki96: Borejsza-Wysocki W, Hrazdina G (1996). "Aromatic Polyketide Synthases (Purification, Characterization, and Antibody Development to Benzalacetone Synthase from Raspberry Fruits)." Plant Physiol 110(3);791-799. PMID: 12226219
Pedapudi00: Pedapudi S, Chin CK, Pedersen H (2000). "Production and elicitation of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone in cell suspension cultures of Rubus idaeus." Biotechnol Prog 16(3);346-9. PMID: 10835233
Zheng01a: Zheng D, Schroder G, Schroder J, Hrazdina G (2001). "Molecular and biochemical characterization of three aromatic polyketide synthase genes from Rubus idaeus." Plant Mol Biol 46(1);1-15. PMID: 11437245
Zheng08: Zheng D, Hrazdina G (2008). "Molecular and biochemical characterization of benzalacetone synthase and chalcone synthase genes and their proteins from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.)." Arch Biochem Biophys 470(2);139-45. PMID: 18068110
Bredebach11: Bredebach M, Matern U, Martens S (2011). "Three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activities of Equisetum arvense L. forming flavone and flavonol from (2S)-naringenin." Phytochemistry 72(7);557-63. PMID: 21353683
Dong01: Dong X, Braun EL, Grotewold E (2001). "Functional conservation of plant secondary metabolic enzymes revealed by complementation of Arabidopsis flavonoid mutants with maize genes." Plant Physiol 127(1);46-57. PMID: 11553733
Leyva95: Leyva A, Jarillo JA, Salinas J, Martinez-Zapater JM (1995). "Low Temperature Induces the Accumulation of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Chalcone Synthase mRNAs of Arabidopsis thaliana in a Light-Dependent Manner." Plant Physiol 108(1);39-46. PMID: 12228452
Matousek02: Matousek J., Novak P., Briza J., Patzak J., Niedermeierova H. (2002). "Cloning and characterisation of chs-specific DNA and cDNA sequences from hop (Humulus lupulus L.)." Plant Science 162 : 1007-1018.
Okada04a: Okada Y, Sano Y, Kaneko T, Abe I, Noguchi H, Ito K (2004). "Enzymatic reactions by five chalcone synthase homologs from hop (Humulus lupulus L.)." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68(5);1142-5. PMID: 15170123
Raharjo04: Raharjo TJ, Chang WT, Verberne MC, Peltenburg-Looman AM, Linthorst HJ, Verpoorte R (2004). "Cloning and over-expression of a cDNA encoding a polyketide synthase from Cannabis sativa." Plant Physiol Biochem 42(4);291-7. PMID: 15120113
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
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