This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: PTT biosynthesis, bialaphos biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Antibiotic Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range:
L-phophinothricin is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is a structural analogue of L-glutamate . As such, it is a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, an enzyme central to nitrogen regulation in many bacterial and plant species [Bayer72, Lea84]. It is the active ingredient in several nonselective systemic herbicides, including Basta, Rely, Finale, Challenge and Liberty.
Phosphinothricin is the only known naturally occurring compound in which a C-P-C bond motif (phosphorus linked to two carbons) is found.
L-phophinothricin is produced by at least three species of actinomycetes as a component of non-ribosomally synthesized peptides. These include phosalacine, produced by Kitasatospora phosalacinea [Omura84] and phophinothricin tripeptide (PTT), also known as bialaphos, which is produced by some strains of Streptomyces hygroscopicus [Seto82] and Streptomyces viridochromogenes [Bayer72]. The peptides are potent antibiotics and herbicides, transported into cells via the oligopeptide transport system, and hydrolyzed intracellularly by peptidases, releasing the toxic L-phophinothricin.
Studies of phophinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis in either of these two organisms suggest that it involves no less than 18 discrete enzymatically catalyzed reactions, starting from the common metabolite phosphoenolpyruvate . These enzymatic steps have been linked to a chromosomal gene cluster about 35 kb in length that includes at least 24 genes that are essential for the process [Schwartz04, Blodgett05]. Most of the steps have been ellucidated, and many of the enzymes have been identified [Alves05, Schwartz96, Schwartz98a, Heinzelmann01, Blodgett05, Blodgett07, Cicchillo09]. The pathway includes several unusual transformations, including a C(sp3)-C(sp3) bond cleavage by the phpD-encoded dioxygenase, the formation of two phosphorus-carbon bonds by phosphoenolpyruvate phosphomutase (ppm) and P-methylase (bcpD), and the assembley of the peptide backbone by three nonribosomal peptide sythetases, encoded by phsA, phsB and phsC.
Different iterations of the pathway have been published over the years. A major revision of the upper part of the pathway, specifically the portion from phosphonoacetaldehyde to carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate, has been suggested in 2007 by [Blodgett07].
Alves05: Alves G, Macrini CM, de Souza Nascimento P, Morais JC, Ornellas AA (2005). "Detection and expression of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in tissues from penile tumors in Brazil." Cancer Lett 227(2);225. PMID: 16112426
Bayer72: Bayer E, Gugel KH, Hagele K, Hagenmaier H, Jessipow S, Konig WA, Zahner H (1972). "[Metabolic products of microorganisms. 98. Phosphinothricin and phosphinothricyl-alanyl-analine]." Helv Chim Acta 55(1);224-39. PMID: 5010035
Blodgett05: Blodgett JA, Zhang JK, Metcalf WW (2005). "Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and heterologous expression of the phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49(1);230-40. PMID: 15616300
Blodgett07: Blodgett JA, Thomas PM, Li G, Velasquez JE, van der Donk WA, Kelleher NL, Metcalf WW (2007). "Unusual transformations in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide." Nat Chem Biol 3(8);480-5. PMID: 17632514
Cicchillo09: Cicchillo RM, Zhang H, Blodgett JA, Whitteck JT, Li G, Nair SK, van der Donk WA, Metcalf WW (2009). "An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis." Nature 459(7248);871-4. PMID: 19516340
Heinzelmann01: Heinzelmann E, Kienzlen G, Kaspar S, Recktenwald J, Wohlleben W, Schwartz D (2001). "The phosphinomethylmalate isomerase gene pmi, encoding an aconitase-like enzyme, is involved in the synthesis of phosphinothricin tripeptide in Streptomyces viridochromogenes." Appl Environ Microbiol 67(8);3603-9. PMID: 11472937
Lea84: Lea, P. J., Joy, K. W., Ramos, J. L., Guerrero, M. G. (1984). "The action of 2-amino-4-(methylphosphonyl)-butanoic acid (phosphinothricin) and its 2-oxo-derivative on the metabolism of cyanobacteria and higher plants." Phytochemistry 23:1-6.
Omura84: Omura S, Murata M, Hanaki H, Hinotozawa K, Oiwa R, Tanaka H (1984). "Phosalacine, a new herbicidal antibiotic containing phosphinothricin. Fermentation, isolation, biological activity and mechanism of action." J Antibiot (Tokyo) 37(8);829-35. PMID: 6480502
Schwartz04: Schwartz D, Berger S, Heinzelmann E, Muschko K, Welzel K, Wohlleben W (2004). "Biosynthetic gene cluster of the herbicide phosphinothricin tripeptide from Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tu494." Appl Environ Microbiol 70(12);7093-102. PMID: 15574905
Schwartz96: Schwartz D, Alijah R, Nussbaumer B, Pelzer S, Wohlleben W (1996). "The peptide synthetase gene phsA from Streptomyces viridochromogenes is not juxtaposed with other genes involved in nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptides." Appl Environ Microbiol 62(2);570-7. PMID: 8593056
Schwartz98a: Schwartz D, Recktenwald J, Pelzer S, Wohlleben W (1998). "Isolation and characterization of the PEP-phosphomutase and the phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase genes from the phosphinothricin tripeptide producer Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tu494." FEMS Microbiol Lett 163(2);149-57. PMID: 9673017
Seto82: Seto H, Imai S, Tsuruoka T, Satoh A, Kojima M, Inouye S, Sasaki T, Otake N (1982). "Studies on the biosynthesis of bialaphos (SF-1293). 1. Incorporation of 13C- and 2H-labeled precursors into bialaphos." J Antibiot (Tokyo) 35(12);1719-21. PMID: 7166539
Anzai87: Anzai H, Murakami T, Imai S, Satoh A, Nagaoka K, Thompson CJ (1987). "Transcriptional regulation of bialaphos biosynthesis in Streptomyces hygroscopicus." J Bacteriol 169(8);3482-8. PMID: 3611020
Borisova10: Borisova SA, Circello BT, Zhang JK, van der Donk WA, Metcalf WW (2010). "Biosynthesis of rhizocticins, antifungal phosphonate oligopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633." Chem Biol 17(1);28-37. PMID: 20142038
Botterman91: Botterman J, Gossele V, Thoen C, Lauwereys M (1991). "Characterization of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase and C-terminal enzymatically active fusion proteins." Gene 102(1);33-7. PMID: 1864506
Bowman88: Bowman E, McQueney M, Barry RJ, Dunaway-Mariano D (1988). "Catalysis and thermodynamics of the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphonopyruvate rearrangement. Entry into the phosphonate class of naturally occurring organophosphorus compounds." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 5575-5576.
Bowman90: Bowman ED, McQueney MS, Scholten JD, Dunaway-Mariano D (1990). "Purification and characterization of the Tetrahymena pyriformis P-C bond forming enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate phosphomutase." Biochemistry 29(30);7059-63. PMID: 2121271
Circello10: Circello BT, Eliot AC, Lee JH, van der Donk WA, Metcalf WW (2010). "Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of the dehydrophos biosynthetic gene cluster." Chem Biol 17(4);402-11. PMID: 20416511
Eliot08: Eliot AC, Griffin BM, Thomas PM, Johannes TW, Kelleher NL, Zhao H, Metcalf WW (2008). "Cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of Streptomyces rubellomurinus genes required for biosynthesis of antimalarial compound FR900098." Chem Biol 15(8);765-70. PMID: 18721747
Hidaka90: Hidaka T, Imai S, Hara O, Anzai H, Murakami T, Nagaoka K, Seto H (1990). "Carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate phosphonomutase, a novel enzyme catalyzing C-P bond formation." J Bacteriol 172(6);3066-72. PMID: 2160937
Hidaka92: Hidaka T, Hidaka M, Uozumi T, Seto H (1992). "Nucleotide sequence of a carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate phosphonomutase gene isolated from a bialaphos-producing organism, Streptomyces hygroscopicus, and its expression in Streptomyces lividans." Mol Gen Genet 233(3);476-8. PMID: 1320191
Hidaka95: Hidaka T, Goda M, Kuzuyama T, Takei N, Hidaka M, Seto H (1995). "Cloning and nucleotide sequence of fosfomycin biosynthetic genes of Streptomyces wedmorensis." Mol Gen Genet 249(3);274-80. PMID: 7500951
Hidaka95a: Hidaka T, Hidaka M, Kuzuyama T, Seto H (1995). "Sequence of a P-methyltransferase-encoding gene isolated from a bialaphos-producing Streptomyces hygroscopicus." Gene 158(1);149-50. PMID: 7789803
Imai85: Imai S, Seto H, Sasaki T, Tsuruoka T, Ogawa H, Satoh A, Inouye S, Niida T, Otake N (1985). "Studies on the biosynthesis of bialaphos (SF-1293). 6. Production of N-acetyl-demethylphosphinothricin and N-acetylbialaphos by blocked mutants of Streptomyces hygroscopicus SF-1293 and their roles in the biosynthesis of bialaphos." J Antibiot (Tokyo) 38(5);687-90. PMID: 4019315
Jia99a: Jia Y, Lu Z, Huang K, Herzberg O, Dunaway-Mariano D (1999). "Insight into the mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate mutase catalysis derived from site-directed mutagenesis studies of active site residues." Biochemistry 38(43);14165-73. PMID: 10571990
Kamigiri92: Kamigiri K, Hidaka T, Imai S, Murakami T, Seto H (1992). "Studies on the biosynthesis of bialaphos (SF-1293) 12. C-P bond formation mechanism of bialaphos: discovery of a P-methylation enzyme." J Antibiot (Tokyo) 45(5);781-7. PMID: 1624380
Kim96: Kim J, Dunaway-Mariano D (1996). "Phosphoenolpyruvate mutase catalysis of phosphoryl transfer in phosphoenolpyruvate: kinetics and mechanism of phosphorus-carbon bond formation." Biochemistry 35(14);4628-35. PMID: 8605214
Kim98a: Kim A, Kim J, Martin BM, Dunaway-Mariano D (1998). "Isolation and characterization of the carbon-phosphorus bond-forming enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate mutase from the mollusk Mytilus edulis." J Biol Chem 273(8);4443-8. PMID: 9468496
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