This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Phenylpropanoid Derivatives Biosynthesis → Flavonoids Biosynthesis → Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Tracheophyta
Proanthocyanin biosynthesis occurs in Arabidopsis mainly in the seed coat. Proanthocyanidin is a condensed tannin, or polymeric flavonol.
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-641
Abrahams02: Abrahams S, Tanner GJ, Larkin PJ, Ashton AR (2002). "Identification and biochemical characterization of mutants in the proanthocyanidin pathway in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 2002;130(2);561-76. PMID: 12376625
Debeaujon01: Debeaujon I, Peeters AJ, Leon-Kloosterziel KM, Koornneef M (2001). "The TRANSPARENT TESTA12 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a multidrug secondary transporter-like protein required for flavonoid sequestration in vacuoles of the seed coat endothelium." Plant Cell 2001;13(4);853-71. PMID: 11283341
Nesi01: Nesi N, Jond C, Debeaujon I, Caboche M, Lepiniec L (2001). "The Arabidopsis TT2 gene encodes an R2R3 MYB domain protein that acts as a key determinant for proanthocyanidin accumulation in developing seed." Plant Cell 2001;13(9);2099-114. PMID: 11549766
Nesi02: Nesi N, Debeaujon I, Jond C, Stewart AJ, Jenkins GI, Caboche M, Lepiniec L (2002). "The TRANSPARENT TESTA16 locus encodes the ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER MADS domain protein and is required for proper development and pigmentation of the seed coat." Plant Cell 2002;14(10);2463-79. PMID: 12368498
Paolocci07: Paolocci F, Robbins MP, Madeo L, Arcioni S, Martens S, Damiani F (2007). "Ectopic expression of a basic helix-loop-helix gene transactivates parallel pathways of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. structure, expression analysis, and genetic control of leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase and anthocyanidin reductase genes in Lotus corniculatus." Plant Physiol 143(1);504-16. PMID: 17098849
Tanner03: Tanner GJ, Francki KT, Abrahams S, Watson JM, Larkin PJ, Ashton AR (2003). "Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants. Purification of legume leucoanthocyanidin reductase and molecular cloning of its cDNA." J Biol Chem 278(34);31647-56. PMID: 12788945
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