Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

MetaCyc Pathway: proanthocyanidin biosynthesis from flavanols
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: proanthocyanidin biosynthesis from flavanols

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisSecondary Metabolites BiosynthesisPhenylpropanoid Derivatives BiosynthesisFlavonoids BiosynthesisProanthocyanidins Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Desmodium uncinatum, Lotus corniculatus

Expected Taxonomic Range: Tracheophyta

Proanthocyanin biosynthesis occurs in Arabidopsis mainly in the seed coat. Proanthocyanidin is a condensed tannin, or polymeric flavonol.

Citations: [Abrahams02, Nesi02, Nesi01, Debeaujon01]

Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-641

Revised 05-Sep-2008 by Karthikeyan AS, TAIR


Abrahams02: Abrahams S, Tanner GJ, Larkin PJ, Ashton AR (2002). "Identification and biochemical characterization of mutants in the proanthocyanidin pathway in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 2002;130(2);561-76. PMID: 12376625

Debeaujon01: Debeaujon I, Peeters AJ, Leon-Kloosterziel KM, Koornneef M (2001). "The TRANSPARENT TESTA12 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a multidrug secondary transporter-like protein required for flavonoid sequestration in vacuoles of the seed coat endothelium." Plant Cell 2001;13(4);853-71. PMID: 11283341

Nesi01: Nesi N, Jond C, Debeaujon I, Caboche M, Lepiniec L (2001). "The Arabidopsis TT2 gene encodes an R2R3 MYB domain protein that acts as a key determinant for proanthocyanidin accumulation in developing seed." Plant Cell 2001;13(9);2099-114. PMID: 11549766

Nesi02: Nesi N, Debeaujon I, Jond C, Stewart AJ, Jenkins GI, Caboche M, Lepiniec L (2002). "The TRANSPARENT TESTA16 locus encodes the ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER MADS domain protein and is required for proper development and pigmentation of the seed coat." Plant Cell 2002;14(10);2463-79. PMID: 12368498

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Paolocci07: Paolocci F, Robbins MP, Madeo L, Arcioni S, Martens S, Damiani F (2007). "Ectopic expression of a basic helix-loop-helix gene transactivates parallel pathways of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. structure, expression analysis, and genetic control of leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase and anthocyanidin reductase genes in Lotus corniculatus." Plant Physiol 143(1);504-16. PMID: 17098849

Tanner03: Tanner GJ, Francki KT, Abrahams S, Watson JM, Larkin PJ, Ashton AR (2003). "Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants. Purification of legume leucoanthocyanidin reductase and molecular cloning of its cDNA." J Biol Chem 278(34);31647-56. PMID: 12788945

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Apr 30, 2016, biocyc11.