This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Chemoautotrophic Energy Metabolism → Hydrogen Oxidation|
Sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the genus Desulfovibrio use oxidized sulfur compounds as their terminal electron acceptors. Many Desulfovibrio species can use H2 as a sole source of electrons and energy under anaerobic conditions [Badziong78]. The hydrogen oxidation is thought to take place on the periplasmic side of the inner membrane, and the electrons are transferred to the membrane bound electron transfer chain, resulting the creation of a proton motive force.
Alternatively, these organisms can produce hydrogen when growing fermentatively on a suitable carbon source (such as lactate and pyruvate) in the absence of sulfate as an electron acceptor. The oxidation of these compounds occurs in the cytoplasm.
The bacterium Desulfovibrio fructosivorans possesses four types of hydrogenases - a periplasmic [NiFe] hydrogenase [Hatchikian90, Rousset90], a cytoplasmic NADP-dependent hydrogenase [Malki95], a periplasmic [Fe] hydrogenase [Casalot98], and a fourth, uncharacterized hydrogenase [Casalot02]. When studying soluble cell extracts of the organism, a 10-fold induction of NADP reduction was observed when H2 was present, but no H2-dependent NAD reduction ever occurred. The genes encoding the four subunits of the cytoplasmic NADP-dependent dehydrogenase have been cloned [Malki95].
An NADP-dependent [NiFe]-hydrogenase has also been characterized from the cytoplasm of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1. This enzyme was also composed of four subunits, and had an optimum temperature of 95 °C [Kanai03].
Badziong78: Badziong W, Thauer RK, Zeikus JG (1978). "Isolation and characterization of Desulfovibrio growing on hydrogen plus sulfate as the sole energy source." Arch Microbiol 116(1);41-9. PMID: 623496
Casalot98: Casalot L, Hatchikian CE, Forget N, de Philip P, Dermoun Z, Belaich JP, Rousset M (1998). "Molecular study and partial characterization of iron-only hydrogenase in Desulfovibrio fructosovorans." Anaerobe 4(1);45-55. PMID: 16887623
Hatchikian90: Hatchikian CE, Traore AS, Fernandez VM, Cammack R (1990). "Characterization of the nickel-iron periplasmic hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans." Eur J Biochem 187(3);635-43. PMID: 2154378
Kanai03: Kanai T, Ito S, Imanaka T (2003). "Characterization of a cytosolic NiFe-hydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1." J Bacteriol 185(5);1705-11. PMID: 12591889
Malki95: Malki S, Saimmaime I, De Luca G, Rousset M, Dermoun Z, Belaich JP (1995). "Characterization of an operon encoding an NADP-reducing hydrogenase in Desulfovibrio fructosovorans." J Bacteriol 177(10);2628-36. PMID: 7751270
Rousset90: Rousset M, Dermoun Z, Hatchikian CE, Belaich JP (1990). "Cloning and sequencing of the locus encoding the large and small subunit genes of the periplasmic [NiFe]hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans." Gene 94(1);95-101. PMID: 2227457
Traore81: Traore AS, Hatchikian CE, Belaich JP, Le Gall J (1981). "Microcalorimetric studies of the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria: energetics of Desulfovibrio vulgaris growth." J Bacteriol 145(1);191-9. PMID: 7462143
Tsuji80: Tsuji, K., Yagi, T. (1980). "Significance of hydrogen burst from growing cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki and the role of hydrogenase and cytochrome c3 in energy production system." Arch. Microbiol. 125:35-42.
De98: De Luca G, Asso M, Belaich JP, Dermoun Z (1998). "Purification and characterization of the HndA subunit of NADP-reducing hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans overproduced in Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 37(8);2660-5. PMID: 9485416
deLuca98: de Luca G, de Philip P, Rousset M, Belaich JP, Dermoun Z (1998). "The NADP-reducing hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio fructosovorans: evidence for a native complex with hydrogen-dependent methyl-viologen-reducing activity." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 248(3);591-6. PMID: 9703971
Ma00: Ma K, Weiss R, Adams MW (2000). "Characterization of hydrogenase II from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and assessment of its role in sulfur reduction." J Bacteriol 182(7);1864-71. PMID: 10714990
Ma93a: Ma K, Schicho RN, Kelly RM, Adams MW (1993). "Hydrogenase of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus is an elemental sulfur reductase or sulfhydrogenase: evidence for a sulfur-reducing hydrogenase ancestor." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(11);5341-4. PMID: 8389482
Malki97: Malki S, De Luca G, Fardeau ML, Rousset M, Belaich JP, Dermoun Z (1997). "Physiological characteristics and growth behavior of single and double hydrogenase mutants of Desulfovibrio fructosovorans." Arch Microbiol 167(1);38-45. PMID: 9000340
Nouailler06: Nouailler M, Morelli X, Bornet O, Chetrit B, Dermoun Z, Guerlesquin F (2006). "Solution structure of HndAc: a thioredoxin-like domain involved in the NADP-reducing hydrogenase complex." Protein Sci 15(6);1369-78. PMID: 16731971
vanHaaster08: van Haaster DJ, Silva PJ, Hagedoorn PL, Jongejan JA, Hagen WR (2008). "Reinvestigation of the steady-state kinetics and physiological function of the soluble NiFe-hydrogenase I of Pyrococcus furiosus." J Bacteriol 190(5);1584-7. PMID: 18156274
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